SINAGRA (1) Italian
Originally denoted a person from Sinagra on Sicily, possibly derived from Latin sinus
"inlet" and ager
Occupational name for a fife player or piper, from Hungarian síp
Means "a fine sieve" in Polish, a diminutive of the Polish word sito
SITZ (1) German
Derived from a given name beginning with the Germanic element sigu
SITZ (2) German
Means "house owner", derived from Old High German siz
Means "rock" in Czech, indicating that the original bearer lived near a prominent rock.
SKALICKÝ Czech, Slovak
Indicated the original bearer came from a place named Skalice
in the Czech Republic or Slovakia, derived from the Slavic root skala
From the Old Norse nickname or byname skjótr
Occupational name for a person who skinned animals, from Old Norse skinn
From a place name, derived from Norwegian skjegg
"beard" and stad
From a place name, derived from Danish skov
"wood, forest" and gård
Originally indicated a person from Slane, County Meath, Ireland, which is derived from the given name SLÁINE
Occupational name indicating that an early member worked covering roofs with slate, from Old French esclat
"shard", of Germanic origin.
Originally a name for a person from SILESIA
, a historical region that is nowadays split between Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Occupational name for a locksmith, from Polish ślusarz
, of Germanic origin.
From a nickname for a small person, from Middle English smal
From an unidentified place name probably meaning "smooth clearing" in Old English.
From Middle Dutch smit
"metalworker, blacksmith", a cognate of SMITH
Means "metalworker, blacksmith" from Old English smiþ
, related to smitan
"to smite, to hit". It is the most common surname in most of the English-speaking world. A famous bearer was the Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).
SMOLAK Polish, Czech
Occupational name for a distiller of pitch, derived from the Slavic word smola
meaning "pitch, resin".
From Old English snel
meaning "fast, quick, nimble".
Habitational name for a person from Sniegow, Sniegowo or other places with a name derived from Polish śnieg
Means "tailor" from Middle English snithen
"to cut", an occupational name for a person who stitched coats and clothing.
SOBOL Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish
Occupational name for a fur trader, from the Slavic word soboli
meaning "sable, marten". As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
SOKOL Czech, Jewish
From Czech sokol
meaning "falcon", a nickname or an occupational name for a falconer. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Usually refers to the city of Sokołów Podlaski in Poland. It may sometimes be derived from Polish sokół
SOLBERG Norwegian, Swedish
From a place name, derived from Old Norse sól
"sun" and berg
"mountain". As a Swedish name it may be ornamental.
From Italian soldato
meaning "soldier", ultimately from Latin solidus
, a type of Roman coin.
SOLER Occitan, Catalan
Denoted a person from any of the numerous places in the area whose names derive from Occitan or Catalan soler
meaning "ground, floor".
From the names of Italian places like Somma Lombardo or Somma Vesuviana, derived from Latin summa
SOMMER (1) German, English
Means "summer", from Old High German sumar
or Old English sumor
. This was a nickname for a cheerful person, someone who lived in a sunny spot, or a farmer who had to pay taxes in the summer.
SOMMER (2) German
From Middle High German sumber
meaning "basket, wickerwork, drum".
Originally indicated a person from Somogy, a region within Hungary. It may be derived from Hungarian som
meaning "cornel tree".
SONG Chinese, Korean
From Chinese 宋 (sòng)
referring to the Song dynasty, which ruled China from 960 to 1279.
Means "sun" from Middle High German sunne
. It probably denoted someone of cheerful temperament or a person who lived in a sunny area.
From Italian sordo
meaning "deaf", from Latin surdus
Means "worry, care, anxiety" in German, from Old High German sorga
From place names such as Soriano Calabro and Soriano nel Cimino. It is typical of southern Italy.
From Hungarian sör
meaning "beer". Originally the name was given to beer brewers.
Derived from the town of Sorrento near Naples, called Surrentum
in Latin, of unknown meaning.
Means "grove of trees, small forest" in Spanish, ultimately from Latin saltus
From Czech suk
meaning "tree knot". This could either be a topographic name or a nickname for a stubborn person.
Originally denoted someone from French towns by this name in Aisne or Yonne, both derived from the Latin name Suciacum
Originally indicated someone who lived near the River Sousa in Portugal, possibly derived from Latin salsus
"salty" or saxa
Name for a person who lived near the southern gate of a town or in a town named Southgate, from Old English suþ
From a diminutive of Polish sowa
Occupational name for an armourer or swordsman, from Italian spada
"sword", Latin spatha
From the name of the town of Spalding in Lincolnshire, derived from the Anglo-Saxon tribe of the Spaldingas.
Occupational name for a nailsmith, from Middle High German span nagel
From Sicilian spanu
meaning "sparse, thin hair", ultimately from Greek σπανιος (spanios)
meaning "scarce, rare".
From Sicilian sparaciu
meaning "asparagus", an occupational name for an asparagus seller or grower.
From an Old Norse nickname or byname derived from sparkr
From Old English spere
"spear", an occupational name for a hunter or a maker of spears, or a nickname for a thin person.
Possibly from German spielen
meaning "to play, to jest" combined with meyer
meaning "village headman". Perhaps it referred to someone who was played or acted as the village headman.
Occupational name for a person who dispensed provisions to those who worked at a manor, derived from Middle English spense
Means "grocer" in Italian, derived from Latin speciarius
SPIJKER (1) Dutch
Denoted a dweller by or worker at a granary, from Dutch spijker
Denoted a person who lived near thorn bushes, from Italian spina
"thorn, spine", from Latin.
Means "sharp" in German, indicating the original bearer lived near a pointed hill.
Means "sharp nail" in German, an occupational name for a nailsmith.
Occupational name for a maker of spoons or a maker of shingles, derived from Middle English spone
meaning "chip of wood, spoon".
From Middle English sparewe
"sparrow" and the diminutive suffix -ling
From the medieval Italian given name Stabile
meaning "stable, firm".
Northern Italian name derived from Latin stabulum
From a nickname for a big person, derived from Middle English stack
"haystack", of Old Norse origin.
From the name of the English city of Stafford, Staffordshire, derived from Old English stæð
meaning "wharf, landing place" and ford
meaning "ford, river crossing".
Originally indicated a person from Staindrop, County Durham, England, derived from Old English stæner
meaning "stony ground" and hop
Originally denoted a person from Étampes near Paris. It was called Stampae
in Latin, but the ultimate origin is uncertain.
Derived from various English place names meaning "stone ford" in Old English.
From various place names meaning "stone clearing" in Old English. A notable bearer was the British-American explorer and journalist Sir Henry Morton Stanley (1841-1904).
From one of the many places named Stanton or Staunton in England, derived from Old English stan
meaning "stone" and tun
meaning "enclosure, town".
From a nickname derived from Polish stary
STARK English, German
From a nickname meaning "strong, rigid", from Old English stearc
or Old High German stark
From Middle English sterre
meaning "star". This was usually a nickname, but it could also occasionally be a sign name from the name of an inn called the Star.
Originally indicated a person from Stairaird, an estate in Scotland.
From the name of a village in the English county of Cheshire, derived from Old English stæð
meaning "wharf, landing place" and ham
Occupational name for one who tended horses, derived from Middle English steed
, in turn derived from Old English steda
Occupational name for a steelworker, from Old English stele
STEIN German, Jewish
From Old High German stein
meaning "stone". It might indicate the original bearer lived near a prominent stone or worked as a stonecutter. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Means "stone man" in German, used as a habitational name for a person who lived near a prominent stone or an occupational name for a stone worker.
Ornamental name derived from Swedish sten
"stone" and dahl
"valley" (modern spelling dal
Occupational name for a post maker, from Old High German stanga
Derived from city of Stirling, which is itself of unknown meaning.
STERN (1) English
From Old English styrne
meaning "stern, severe". This was used as a nickname for someone who was stern, harsh, or severe in manner or character.
Ornamental name derived from old German stern
"star" and berg
Name for a dweller by a stump of a large tree, from Middle Low German stubbe
Occupational name for an administrative official of an estate or steward, from Old English stig
"house" and weard
"guard". The Stewart family (sometimes spelled Stuart
) held the Scottish crown for several centuries. One of the most famous members of the Stewart family was Mary, Queen of Scots.
Derived from Middle High German stiuben
meaning "to run away". It may have been given as a nickname to a cowardly person or a thief.
Derived from the name of the town of Stilo in southern Italy. It is possibly derived from Greek στυλος (stylos)
meaning "column, pillar".
Occupational name for a horse keeper, from Old English stod
"stallion, stud" and hierde
Occupational name from Polish stolarz
meaning "joiner, maker of furniture".
Name for a person who lived near a prominent stone or worked with stone, derived from Old English stan
Means "stump leg" from Middle Low German stoppel
"stump" and bein
Originally denoted someone from Storstrand farm in Norway, derived from stor
meaning "big" and strand
STRAND Norwegian, Swedish, Danish
From Old Norse strǫnd
meaning "beach, sea shore". It was originally given to someone who lived on or near the sea.
Derived from Middle English strange
meaning "foreign", ultimately from Latin extraneus
From Old High German strub
meaning "rough, unkempt".
Habitational name for a person who lived in a place called Street, for example in Somerset. It is derived from Old English stræt
meaning "Roman road", from Latin strata
From the name of a town in Cumbria, derived from Old English stirc
"calf, young bullock" and land
Occupational name for a maker of string or bow strings, from Old English streng
Means "straw man" in German, an occupational name for a seller of straw.
From Old English strod
meaning "marshy ground overgrown with brushwood".
From an English place name derived from Old English strod
meaning "marshy ground overgrown with brushwood" and wíc
meaning "village, town".
STRUNA Slovene, Czech
From Slavic struna
meaning "string, cord", possibly denoting a maker of rope.
Occupational name for the owner of an inn, derived from Old High German stuba
Nickname for a short person or a topographic name someone who lived near a prominent stump, from Middle High German stumpf
Means "storm" in German, originally a nickname for a volatile person.
Locational name for one who lived near a steep hill, from Old English stigol
"stile, set of steps".
Means "dry" in Czech. This was a nickname for a thin person.
Variant of SÜß
. A famous bearer was the American children's author Dr. Seuss (1904-1991), who was born Theodor Seuss Geisel.
Anglicized form of the Irish name Ó Súileabháin
meaning "descendant of Súileabhán". The name Súileabhán
means "little dark eye".
From a nickname meaning "sultan, ruler" in Arabic.
Toponymic name from German places named Sulzbach meaning "salty stream", derived from Old High German sulza
"salty water" and bah
Originally indicated the bearer was from a town of this name, derived from Old English sumor
"summer" and feld
Occupational name for a summoner, an official who was responsible for ensuring the appearance of witnesses in court, from Middle English sumner
, ultimately from Latin submonere
From Chinese 孙 (sūn)
meaning "grandchild, descendant". A famous bearer of the surname was Sun Tzu, the 6th-century BC author of 'The Art of War'.
From Old High German suozi
Regional name for a person who came from the former county by this name in Scotland. It is derived from Old Norse suðr
"south" and land
"land", because it was south of the Norse colony of Orkney.
From various English place names meaning "south town".
From Japanese 鈴 (suzu)
meaning "bell" and 木 (ki)
meaning "tree, wood". This is the second most common surname in Japan.
Means "freedom" in Czech. This was a medieval name for a freeman, someone who was not a serf.
From a nickname meaning "sweet, pleasant", from Old English swete
From the place name Swinglehurst
in the Forest of Bowland in central Lancashire, derived from Old English swin
"swine, pig", hyll
"hill" and hyrst
Occupational name for a ploughman or tiller, derived from Hungarian szánt
meaning "to plow".
From Hungarian szarka
meaning "magpie", often used as a euphemistic term for a thief.
Denoted a person of Székely ancestry. The Székelys are a population of Hungarians who live in central Romania.
Occupational name for a cartman, derived from Hungarian szekér
meaning "cart, wagon".
Denoted one from the region of Szilágy in Hungary, derived from Hungarian szil
meaning "elm" and ágy