Surnames via Occupations

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AARDENDutch
From Dutch aarden meaning "clay, stone, earth". It probably denoted a person who worked with those materials.
ABADJIEVBulgarian
Patronymic name derived from the Turkish word aba "coat". It may have originally denoted the children of a tailor.
ABARCASpanish
From the name of a type of leather-soled shoe or sandal made on the Balearic Islands. It originally indicated a person who made or sold this item.
ABATANGELOItalian
From Italian abate meaning "abbot, priest" combined with the given name ANGELO.
ABATANTUONOItalian
From Italian abate meaning "abbot, priest" combined with the given name ANTONIO.
ABATEItalian
From Italian abate meaning "abbot, priest", derived via Latin and Greek from an Aramaic word meaning "father". This was used either as a nickname or an occupational name for a worker in a priest's house.
ABATEGIOVANNIItalian
From Italian abate meaning "abbot, priest" combined with the given name GIOVANNI.
ABATESCIANNIItalian
From Italian abate meaning "abbot, priest" combined with the given name GIANNI.
ABBÀItalian
Variant of ABATE.
ABBADELLIItalian
Means "little abbot" from Italian abate and the diminutive suffix -elli.
ABBATEItalian
Variant of ABATE.
ABBATICCHIOItalian
Means "little abbot" from Italian abate and the diminutive suffix -icchio, from Latin -iculus.
ABBEYEnglish
Indicated a person who lived near an abbey or worked in an abbey, from Middle English abbeye.
ABBOTTEnglish
English cognate of ABATE.
ABTGerman
German cognate of ABATE.
ACCIAIItalian
Derived from medieval Italian accia meaning "axe", ultimately from Latin ascia.
ACKERMANEnglish
Means "ploughman", derived from Middle English aker "field" and man.
ACQUAItalian
Means "water" in Italian, indicating one who dwelt by or transported water.
ACQUARONEItalian
Meaning uncertain, possibly from a place name or an occupation derived from Italian acqua "water".
ADMIRAALDutch
Means "admiral" in Dutch.
AGRICOLAItalian
From Latin agricola meaning "farmer".
AGUASpanish
Means "water" in Spanish, indicating a person who lived near water or worked with water.
AGUADOSpanish
Derived from Spanish agua "water", indicating a person who lived near water or worked with water.
ALBEROItalian
From Italian albero meaning "tree", ultimately from Latin arbor, referring to someone who lived in the woods or worked as a woodcutter.
ALMÁSSYHungarian
Derived from Hungarian alma meaning "apple", perhaps originally referring to a person who harvested or sold apples.
AL-MUFTIArabic
Refers to a mufti, a Muslim legal advisor consulted in applying a religious law.
ALUNNIItalian
From Italian alunno meaning "student".
ANKERDutch, Danish, Norwegian
Metonymic surname for a sailor, meaning "anchor" in Dutch, Danish and Norwegian.
ARBEIDDutch
From Dutch arbeid meaning "work".
ARBEIDERDutch
From Dutch arbeider meaning "worker".
ARBEITGerman
From German arbeit meaning "work".
ARCHEREnglish
Occupational name for one who practiced archery, from Latin arcus "bow" (via Old French).
ARKWRIGHTEnglish
Occupational name for a chest maker, from Middle English arc meaning "chest, coffer" and wyrhta meaning "maker, craftsman".
ARMBRUSTERGerman
Means "crossbow maker" from German armbrust "crossbow". The word armbrust was originally from Latin arcuballista meaning "bow ballista", but was modified under the influence of German arm "arm" and brust "breast".
ARTS (2)Dutch
Dutch cognate of ARZT.
ARZTDutch
Means "doctor, physician" in German, ultimately from Latin archiater.
ATTARPersian
From Persian عطر ('atir) meaning "fragrance, perfume", ultimately from Arabic. It probably denoted a seller of perfume.
AVCITurkish
Means "hunter" in Turkish.
AZZARÀItalian
Sicilian name, derived from Greek dialects of southern Italy. It is from Greek ψαρας (psaras) meaning "fisherman".
BAANDERSDutch
Dutch cognate of BANNER.
BAASDutch
Means "boss, overseer" in Dutch.
BAASCHLow German
From Middle Low German baas meaning "boss".
BACHMEIERGerman
Originally referred to a farmer whose farm was beside a stream, from Middle High German bach "stream" and meier "steward, tenant farmer".
BACHVAROVBulgarian
Patronymic from Bulgarian бъчвар (bachvar) meaning "cooper, barrel maker".
BÄCKERGerman
Variant of BECKER, mostly found in northern Germany.
BACKUSEnglish
Means "bakery", an occupational name for a baker, from Old English bæchus literally "bake house".
BADEMTurkish
Derived from a Turkish word meaning "almond".
BADERGerman
Derived from Old High German bad "bath", most likely referring to a bath attendant.
BAGERDanish
Danish cognate of BAKER.
BAGLIOItalian
Italian cognate of BAILEY.
BAGNIItalian
From Latin balnea "bath", referring to a person who worked as a bath house attendant.
BAGNOLIItalian
Diminutive form of BAGNI.
BAILEYEnglish
From Middle English baili meaning "bailiff", which comes via Old French from Latin baiulus "porter".
BAIRDScottish
Anglicized form of MAC AN BAIRD.
BAKALOVBulgarian
Patronymic derived from Bulgarian bakalin meaning "grocer".
BAKEREnglish
Occupational name meaning "baker", derived from Middle English bakere.
BAKHUIZENDutch
Means "bakery" from Dutch bak "bake" and huis "house", an occupational name for a baker.
BAKKERDutch
Dutch cognate of BAKER, from Middle Dutch backer.
BAKÓHungarian
Means "axeman" in Hungarian.
BANDERASSpanish
Spanish cognate of BANNER.
BANDONIItalian
From Italian bandone meaning "sheet of iron".
BANDYOPADHYAYBengali
From the name of the village of Bandoghat combined with upadhaya "instructor, priest".
BANÍKSlovak
Means "miner" in Slovak.
BANNEREnglish
Occupational name for a flag carrier, derived from Old French baniere meaning "banner", ultimately of Germanic origin.
BANNISTEREnglish
From Norman French banastre meaning "basket". This was originally a name for a maker of baskets.
BARBEREnglish, Scottish
Indicated a barber, one who cut hair for a living.
BARBIERIItalian
Italian cognate of BARBER.
BARDAKÇITurkish
Means "glassmaker" from Turkish bardak "glass".
BARKEREnglish
From Middle English bark meaning "to tan". This was an occupational name for a leather tanner.
BARONEItalian
From the title barone "baron", derived via Latin from Germanic baro "man, warrior, servant".
BARROSPortuguese, Spanish
From the Portuguese and Spanish word barro meaning "clay, mud". This could either be an occupational name for a person who worked with clay or mud such as a builder or artisan, or a topographic name for someone living near clay or mud.
BARSAMIANArmenian
Variant transcription of PARSAMYAN.
BAUERGerman
From Old High German bur meaning "peasant, farmer".
BAUERSGerman
Variant of BAUER.
BAUMANNGerman, Jewish
From Middle High German bumann meaning "farmer, builder".
BAUMGARTNERGerman
Occupational name for a person who worked or lived at an orchard, from German Baumgarten "orchard" (derived from Baum "tree" and Garten "garden").
BAUMHAUERGerman
Occupational name meaning "woodcutter", derived from German Baum "tree" and hauen "to chop".
BAXTEREnglish
Variant (in origin a feminine form) of BAKER.
BEANEnglish
English cognate of BOHN.
BECK (2)German
Variant of BECKER, from southern German beck.
BECK (4)English
From Old English becca meaning "pickaxe", an occupational surname.
BECKENBAUERGerman
Means "farmer living by a stream" in German.
BECKERGerman
Derived from Middle High German becker meaning "baker".
BEITELGerman
Variant of BEUTEL.
BELL (1)English
From Middle English belle meaning "bell". It originated as a nickname for a person who lived near the town bell, or who had a job as a bell-ringer.
BELTZGerman
Occupational name for a tanner of hides, derived from Middle High German belz meaning "fur".
BENBOWEnglish
From a nickname "bend the bow" given to an archer.
BERGER (1)French
Occupational name meaning "shepherd", from Old French bergier.
BERIDZEGeorgian
Means "son of the monk", from Georgian ბერი (beri) meaning "monk".
BEST (1)English
Derived from Middle English beste meaning "beast", an occupational name for a keeper of animals or a nickname for someone who acted like a beast. A famous bearer of this surname was soccer legend George Best (1946-2005).
BEUTELGerman
From Middle High German biutel meaning "bag", originally belonging to a person who made or sold bags.
BHATTACHARYABengali
From a Bengali title composed of the Sanskrit words भट्ट (bhatta) "scholar, lord" and आचार्य (acharya) "teacher".
BICCHIERIItalian
Means "drinking glasses" in Italian, referring originally to a person who made or sold them.
BIERMANNGerman
Derived from German bier "beer" and mann "man". The name may have referred to a brewer or a tavern owner.
BİNİCİTurkish
From the word binici meaning "rider, horseman".
BIRDEnglish
Occupational name for a person who raised or hunted birds.
BÍRÓHungarian
Derived from bíró meaning "judge" in Hungarian.
BISCHOFFSGerman
German cognate of BISHOP.
BISHOPEnglish
Means simply "bishop", ultimately from Greek επισκοπος (episkopos) meaning "overseer". It probably originally referred to a person who served a bishop.
BISKUPCzech, Slovak
Czech and Slovak cognate of BISHOP.
BLECHERGerman
Occupational name for someone who worked with tin or sheet metal, from German blech "tin".
BLEIERGerman
Occupational name for a worker of lead, derived from German blei "lead".
BOATWRIGHTEnglish
Occupational name meaning "maker of boats".
BOBALCzech
Derived from Czech bob meaning "bean".
BODNÁRHungarian
Means "cooper, barrel maker" in Hungarian.
BOERDutch
Dutch form of BAUER.
BOEREFIJNDutch
Possibly an adaptation of French beurre fin meaning "good butter".
BOERIOItalian
From Italian boaro meaning "cowherd".
BOGNÁRHungarian
Hungarian form of WAGNER.
BOHNGerman
Occupational name for a bean grower, derived from Middle High German bone "bean".
BONDEnglish
Occupational name for a peasant farmer, from Middle English bonde.
BOON (3)Dutch
Dutch cognate of BOHN.
BOOTSMAFrisian
Occupational name meaning "boatman", derived from Dutch boot "boat".
BORBÉLYHungarian
Hungarian cognate of BARBER.
BOROSHungarian
Derived from Hungarian bor "wine". Originally it could have indicated someone who made or sold wine.
BOTELLOGalician
Occupational name for a maker of bottles, from Galician bottela meaning "bottle".
BÖTTCHERGerman
Occupational name meaning "cooper, barrel maker" in German.
BOUCHERFrench
Means "butcher" in French.
BOUWMEESTERDutch
Means "architect, builder" in Dutch.
BOWMANEnglish
Occupational name for an archer, derived from Middle English bowe, Old English boga meaning "bow".
BOYADJIEVBulgarian
Variant transcription of BOYADZHIEV.
BOYADZHIEVBulgarian
Patronymic from Bulgarian бояджия (boyadzhiya) meaning "dyer".
BRASHEREnglish
Means "brass worker", derived from Old English bræs "brass".
BRAUERLow German
Derived from Middle Low German bruwer meaning "brewer".
BREINERGerman, Swedish
Occupational name derived from Middle High German brie "porridge".
BREWEREnglish
Occupational name for a maker of ale or beer.
BREWSTEREnglish
Variant of BREWER, originally a feminine form of the occupational term.
BRISBOISFrench
Referred to a person who cleared land, from Old French briser "to cut" and bois "forest".
BRODBECKGerman
Means "bread baker" from Middle High German brot "bread" and becke "baker".
BRODEURFrench
Means "embroiderer" in French.
BROGANIrish
Occupational name derived from Irish bróg meaning "shoe".
BUCHVAROVBulgarian
Variant transcription of BACHVAROV.
BUHRLow German
Low German form of BAUER.
BUREAUFrench
From Old French burel, diminutive of bure, a type of woolen cloth. It may have originated as a nickname for a person who dressed in the material or as an occupational name for someone who worked with it.
BURRELLEnglish
English form of BUREAU.
BUTCHEREnglish
Occupational name for a butcher, derived from Old French bouchier.
BUTLEREnglish, Irish
Occupational name derived from Norman French butiller "wine steward", ultimately from Late Latin butticula "bottle". A famous bearer of this surname is the fictional character Rhett Butler, created by Margaret Mitchell for her novel 'Gone with the Wind' (1936).
BYRDEnglish
Variant of BIRD.
CAITOItalian
Occupational name from Sicilian càjitu "official, leader", ultimately from Arabic قاضي (qadi) "judge".
CALLIGARISItalian
From Late Latin caligarius meaning "shoemaker".
CAMPANAItalian, Spanish
Occupational name from Late Latin campana meaning "bell", ultimately derived from the Italian region of Campania, where bells were produced.
CANNONEnglish
From the ecclesiastical usage of canon, referring to a church official or servant who worked in a clergy house.
CAPELLO (1)Italian
From Late Latin cappa meaning "cloak, cape, hood". This was a name for one who made or wore cloaks.
CAPITANIItalian
Occupational name meaning "captain" in Italian, ultimately from Latin caput "head".
CARMAN (1)English
Occupational name for a carter, from Middle English carre "cart" (of Latin origin) and man "man".
CARONFrench
Variant of CHARRON.
CARPENTEREnglish
From the occupation, derived from Middle English carpentier (ultimately from Latin carpentarius meaning "carriage maker").
CARTEREnglish
Occupational name for a person who operated a cart to transport goods, from Norman French caretier.
CARTWRIGHTEnglish
Occupational name indicating one who made carts.
CARVEREnglish
Occupational surname for a carver, from Middle English kerve "cut".
CATTANEOItalian
Variant of CAPITANI used in Lombardy.
CAUSEREnglish
Occupational name for one who made leggings, derived from Old French chausse "leggings".
CAVALCANTEItalian
Derived from Italian cavalcare "to ride".
CAVALLOItalian
Means "horse" in Italian, an cccupational name for a horseman.
CHALUPNÍKCzech
Derived from Czech chalupa meaning "cottage". The name referred to a peasant farmer who owned a very small piece of land.
CHAMBERLAINEnglish
Occupational name for one who looked after the inner rooms of a mansion, from Norman French chambrelain.
CHAMBERSEnglish
From Old French chambre "chamber, room", an occupational name for a person who worked in the inner rooms of a mansion.
CHANCELLOREnglish
Occupational name for an administrator, a chancellor, from Norman French chancelier.
CHANDLEREnglish
Occupational surname meaning "candle seller" or "candle maker" in Middle English, ultimately derived from Old French.
CHAPMANEnglish
Occupational name derived from Old English ceapmann meaning "merchant, trader".
CHAPUTFrench
From a diminutive of the Old French word chape meaning "cloak, hood". The name referred to a person who made, sold or often wore cloaks.
CHARMCHIPersian
Means "leather worker" in Persian, from چرم (charm) "leather" combined with چی (chi), denoting an occupation.
CHARPENTIERFrench
French cognate of CARPENTER, derived from Old French charpentier.
CHARRONFrench
Meant "cart" in Old French, used to denote a carter or a cartwright.
CHASEEnglish
Occupational name for a hunter, from Middle English chase "hunt".
CHAUDHARIIndian, Marathi, Gujarati
Variant transcription of CHAUDHARY.
CHAUDHARYIndian, Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati, Nepali
From a title meaning "holder of four", from Sanskrit चतुर् (chatur) meaning "four" and धुरीय (dhuriya) "bearing a burden".
CHAUDHRIIndian, Hindi
Variant transcription of CHAUDHARY.
CHAUDHURIBengali
Variant transcription of CHOWDHURY.
CHEUNGChinese (Cantonese)
Cantonese romanization of ZHANG.
CHEVROLETFrench
From a diminutive of chèvre meaning "goat", indicating a person who cultivated goats.
CHILIKOVBulgarian
Patronymic derived from Bulgarian челик (chelik) "steel" (of Turkish origin).
CHLEBEKPolish
From Polish chleb "bread", used to denote a baker.
CHMELACzech
Derived from Czech chmel "hops", referring to a person who grew hops, a plant used in brewing beer.
CHMIELPolish
Polish cognate of CHMELA, from Polish chmiel.
CHONGChinese (Cantonese)
Cantonese romanization of ZHANG.
CHOUDHARYIndian, Hindi, Marathi
Variant transcription of CHAUDHARY.
CHOUDHURYBengali
Variant transcription of CHOWDHURY.
CHOWDHURYBengali
Bengali form of CHAUDHARY.
CLACHERScottish
From Scottish Gaelic clachair meaning "stonemason".
CLARKEnglish
Means "cleric" or "scribe", from Old English clerec meaning "priest", ultimately from Latin clericus. A famous bearer was William Clark (1770-1838), an explorer of the west of North America.
CLARKEEnglish
Variant of CLARK.
CLARKSONEnglish
Patronymic form of CLARK.
CLAYEnglish
Means simply "clay", originally referring to a person who lived near or worked with of clay.
CLEARYIrish
From Irish cléireach meaning "clerk" (see CLARK).
CLERYIrish
Variant of CLEARY.
CLOUTIERFrench
Derived from French clou meaning "nail", referring to someone who made or sold nails.
COELHOPortuguese
From the Portuguese word for "rabbit", either a nickname or an occupational name referring to a hunter or seller of rabbits.
COELLOGalician
Galician cognate of COELHO.
COEMANDutch
Variant of KOOPMAN.
COHENJewish
Means "priest" from Hebrew כֹּהֵן (kohen). It originally denoted one of the priestly tribe of Levi.
COIROItalian
From Italian cuoio meaning "leather", ultimately from Latin corium. This was an occupational surname for a leather worker or tanner.
COJOCARURomanian
From Romanian cojoc meaning "sheepskin coat". This was an occupational name for a maker of these coats.
COKEEnglish
Variant of COOK.
COKESEnglish
Variant of COOK.
COLOMBOItalian
Either from Italian colomba "dove" indicating a dove keeper, or from the given name COLOMBO which is derived from the same word. This was the Italian surname of the 15th-century explorer Christopher Columbus.
COLÓNSpanish
Spanish form of COLOMBO.
CONNEREnglish
From Middle English connere meaning "inspector", an occupational name for an inspector of weights and measures.
CONSTABLEEnglish
From Old French conestable, ultimately from Latin comes stabuli meaning "officer of the stable".
CONTIItalian
From the Italian noble title conte meaning "count", derived from Latin comes. It denoted a person who worked for a count or, in rare cases, was a count.
COOKEnglish
Derived from Old English coc meaning "cook", ultimately from Latin coquus. It was an occupational name for a cook, a man who sold cooked meats, or a keeper of an eating house.
COOKEEnglish
Variant of COOK.
COOKSONEnglish
Patronymic form of COOK.
COOPEREnglish
Means "barrel maker", from Middle English couper.
CORNETTEnglish
Derived from Old French cornet meaning "horn", referring to one who worked as a horn blower.
CORWINEnglish
Derived from Old French cordoan "leather", ultimately from the name of the Spanish city of Cordova.
COTTERILLEnglish
Derived from Middle English cotter meaning "cottager", referring to a small tenant farmer.
COUPEEnglish
From Middle English coupe meaning "barrel", a name for a barrel maker or cooper.
COUTUREFrench
Means "tailor" in Old French.
CROPPEREnglish
Occupational name derived from Middle English croppe "crop", referring to a fruit picker or a crop reaper.
CSIZMADIAHungarian
Means "bootmaker" in Hungarian.
ČTVRTNÍKCzech
Derived from Czech čtvrtlán meaning "one quarter of a lán", where a lán is a medieval Czech measure of land (approximately 18 hectares). The name denoted someone who owned this much land.
CUCINOTTAItalian
Derived from a diminutive of Italian cucina meaning "kitchen".
CUIJPERDutch
Variant of KUIPER.
CUOCCOItalian
Italian cognate of COOK.
CUOCOItalian
Italian cognate of COOK.
CUYPERDutch
Variant of KUIPER.
CUYPERSDutch
Variant of KUIPER.
DARBINIANArmenian
Variant transcription of DARBINYAN.
DARBINYANArmenian
From Armenian դարբին (darbin) meaning "blacksmith".
DARZIPersian
Means "tailor" in Persian.
DASBengali, Indian, Assamese, Odia, Hindi, Marathi
Means "servant, devotee" in Sanskrit.
DASKALOVBulgarian
Patronymic derived from даскал (daskal) meaning "teacher".
DEAN (2)English
Occupational surname meaning "dean", referring to a person who either was a dean or worked for one. It is from Middle English deen (ultimately from Latin decanus meaning "chief of ten").
DEĞIRMENCITurkish
From a Turkish word meaning "miller".
DE KLERKDutch
From Dutch klerk meaning "clerk", making this a cognate of CLARK.
DEMİRTurkish
Means "iron" in Turkish, originally referring to an ironworker.
DEMİRCİTurkish
Means "blacksmith" in Turkish.
DENZELGerman
Variant of TANZER.
DE SMETFlemish
Flemish variant of SMIT.
DE SNAIJERDutch
Dutch cognate of SNYDER.
DEXTEREnglish
Occupational name meaning "dyer" in Old English (orginally this was a feminine word, but it was later applied to men as well).
DICKMANEnglish
From Old English dic "ditch" combined with man "man". It was originally a name for a ditch digger or someone who lived near a ditch.
DOBOSHungarian
Derived from Hungarian dob meaning "drum". Originally the name was given to someone who played drums or made them.
DOCTOREnglish
Originally denoted someone who was a doctor, ultimately from Latin doctor meaning "teacher".
DRAPEREnglish
Occupational name for a maker or seller of woolen cloth, from Anglo-Norman French draper (Old French drapier, an agent derivative of drap "cloth").
DREHERGerman
Means "a turner" from Middle High German drehen "to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
DREIERGerman
Variant of DREHER.
DRESCHNERGerman
Derived from Middle High German dreschen "to thresh". A thresher was a person who separated the grains from a cereal plant by beating it.
DRESSLERGerman
Means "turner" from Middle High German dreseler, an agent derivative of drehen "to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
DREYERGerman
Variant of DREHER.
DRISCOLLIrish
From Irish Ó hEidirsceóil meaning "descendant of the messenger".
DUFOURFrench
Occupational name for a baker, from French four "oven".
DUKEEnglish
From the noble title, which was originally from Latin dux "leader". It was an occupational surname for a person who behaved like a duke, or who worked in a duke's household.
DUKESEnglish
Patronymic form of DUKE.
DVOŘÁKCzech
Occupational name derived from Czech dvůr "manor", indicating a person who worked at such a place. This name was borne by the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904).
DYEREnglish
Occupational name for a cloth dyer, from Old English deah "dye".
DZIEDZICPolish
Derived from Polish dziedzic "landowner".
EARLEnglish
From the aristocratic title, which derives from Old English eorl meaning "nobleman, warrior". It was either a nickname for one who acted like an earl, or an occupational name for a person employed by an earl.
EARLSEnglish
Patronymic form of EARL.
EBNER (2)German
Means "judge, arbiter" from Middle High German ebenære.
EGGERGerman
South German occupational name for a plowman or farmer, derived from German eggen "to harrow, to plow".
EKMEKÇITurkish
Means "baker" in Turkish.
EL-MOFTYArabic
Variant transcription of AL-MUFTI.
EPISCOPOItalian
Means "bishop" in Italian, ultimately from Greek επισκοπος (episkopos).
ERDŐSHungarian
Occupational name meaning "forester", derived from Hungarian erdő "forest".
ESSERGerman
Means "cartwright", related to Old High German ahsa "axle".
ESSERTGerman
Variant of ESSER.
EVANGELISTAItalian
Means "evangelist" in Italian.
FABBRIItalian
From Italian fabbro meaning "blacksmith", ultimately from Latin faber.
FABIANGerman, English, Polish
Derived from the given name FABIAN.
FABIENFrench
Derived from the given name FABIEN.
FABREFrench
Derived from Latin faber "blacksmith".
FABRONFrench
Diminutive form of FABRE.
FALCOItalian
Derived from Italian falco "falcon". The name was used to denote a falconer or a person who resembled a falcon in some way.
FALKSwedish, Danish, Norwegian, German
From Old Norse falkr or Middle High German valke "falcon".
FARAGÓHungarian
An occupational name for a woodcutter, from Hungarian farag meaning "carve, cut".
FÄRBERGerman
Occupational name meaning "dyer", derived from German Farbe "colour".
FARINAItalian
Occupational name for a miller, derived from Italian farina "flour".
FARMEREnglish
Occupational name for a tax collector, from Middle English ferme "rent, revenue, provision", from Medieval Latin firma, ultimately from Old English feorm. This word did not acquire its modern meaning until the 17th century.
FASHINGBAUERGerman
From Fasching, a German carnival (Fastnacht meaning "eve of the beginning of the fast", or the time before Lent) celebrated in Austria and Bavaria, and bauer meaning "farmer".
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