From Dutch aarden
meaning "clay, stone, earth". It probably denoted a person who worked with those materials.
Patronymic name derived from the Turkish word aba
"coat". It may have originally denoted the children of a tailor.
From the name of a type of leather-soled shoe or sandal made on the Balearic Islands. It originally indicated a person who made or sold this item.
From Italian abate
meaning "abbot, priest", derived via Latin and Greek from an Aramaic word meaning "father". This was used either as a nickname or an occupational name for a worker in a priest's house.
Means "little abbot" from Italian abate
and the diminutive suffix -elli
Means "little abbot" from Italian abate
and the diminutive suffix -icchio
, from Latin -iculus
Indicated a person who lived near an abbey or worked in an abbey, from Middle English abbeye
Derived from medieval Italian accia
meaning "axe", ultimately from Latin ascia
Means "ploughman", derived from Middle English aker
"field" and man
Means "water" in Italian, indicating one who dwelt by or transported water.
Meaning uncertain, possibly from a place name or an occupation derived from Italian acqua
Means "water" in Spanish, indicating a person who lived near water or worked with water.
Derived from Spanish agua
"water", indicating a person who lived near water or worked with water.
From Italian albero
meaning "tree", ultimately from Latin arbor
, referring to someone who lived in the woods or worked as a woodcutter.
Derived from Hungarian alma
meaning "apple", perhaps originally referring to a person who harvested or sold apples.
Refers to a mufti
, a Muslim legal advisor consulted in applying a religious law.
Occupational name for one who practiced archery, from Latin arcus
"bow" (via Old French).
Occupational name for a chest maker, from Middle English arc
meaning "chest, coffer" and wyrhta
meaning "maker, craftsman".
Means "crossbow maker" from German armbrust
"crossbow". The word armbrust
was originally from Latin arcuballista
meaning "bow ballista", but was modified under the influence of German arm
"arm" and brust
Means "doctor, physician" in German, ultimately from Latin archiater
From Persian عطر ('atir)
meaning "fragrance, perfume", ultimately from Arabic. It probably denoted a seller of perfume.
Sicilian name, derived from Greek dialects of southern Italy. It is from Greek ψαρας (psaras)
Originally referred to a farmer whose farm was beside a stream, from Middle High German bach
"stream" and meier
"steward, tenant farmer".
Means "bakery", an occupational name for a baker, from Old English bæchus
literally "bake house".
Derived from Old High German bad
"bath", most likely referring to a bath attendant.
From Latin balnea
"bath", referring to a person who worked as a bath house attendant.
From Middle English baili
meaning "bailiff", which comes via Old French from Latin baiulus
Occupational name meaning "baker", derived from Middle English bakere
Means "bakery" from Dutch bak
"bake" and huis
"house", an occupational name for a baker.
From the name of the village of Bandoghat
combined with upadhaya
Occupational name for a flag carrier, derived from Old French baniere
meaning "banner", ultimately of Germanic origin.
From Norman French banastre
meaning "basket". This was originally a name for a maker of baskets.
From Middle English bark
meaning "to tan". This was an occupational name for a leather tanner.
From the title barone
"baron", derived via Latin from Germanic baro
"man, warrior, servant".
From the Portuguese and Spanish word barro
meaning "clay, mud". This could either be an occupational name for a person who worked with clay or mud such as a builder or artisan, or a topographic name for someone living near clay or mud.
From Old High German bur
meaning "peasant, farmer".
Occupational name for a person who worked or lived at an orchard, from German Baumgarten
"orchard" (derived from Baum
"tree" and Garten
Occupational name meaning "woodcutter", derived from German Baum
"tree" and hauen
From Old English becca
meaning "pickaxe", an occupational surname.
Derived from Middle High German becker
From Middle English belle
meaning "bell". It originated as a nickname for a person who lived near the town bell, or who had a job as a bell-ringer.
Occupational name for a tanner of hides, derived from Middle High German belz
Derived from Middle English beste
meaning "beast", an occupational name for a keeper of animals or a nickname for someone who acted like a beast. A famous bearer of this surname was soccer legend George Best (1946-2005).
From Middle High German biutel
meaning "bag", originally belonging to a person who made or sold bags.
Means "drinking glasses" in Italian, referring originally to a person who made or sold them.
Derived from German bier
"beer" and mann
"man". The name may have referred to a brewer or a tavern owner.
Occupational name for a person who raised or hunted birds.
Means simply "bishop", ultimately from Greek επισκοπος (episkopos)
meaning "overseer". It probably originally referred to a person who served a bishop.
Occupational name for someone who worked with tin or sheet metal, from German blech
Occupational name for a worker of lead, derived from German blei
Possibly an adaptation of French beurre fin
meaning "good butter".
Occupational name for a bean grower, derived from Middle High German bone
Occupational name for a peasant farmer, from Middle English bonde
Occupational name meaning "boatman", derived from Dutch boot
Derived from Hungarian bor
"wine". Originally it could have indicated someone who made or sold wine.
Occupational name for a maker of bottles, from Galician bottela
Occupational name meaning "cooper, barrel maker" in German.
Occupational name for an archer, derived from Middle English bowe
, Old English boga
Means "brass worker", derived from Old English bræs
Referred to a person who cleared land, from Old French briser
"to cut" and bois
Means "bread baker" from Middle High German brot
"bread" and becke
Occupational name derived from Irish bróg
From Old French burel
, diminutive of bure
, a type of woolen cloth. It may have originated as a nickname for a person who dressed in the material or as an occupational name for someone who worked with it.
Occupational name for a butcher, derived from Old French bouchier
Occupational name derived from Norman French butiller
"wine steward", ultimately from Late Latin butticula
"bottle". A famous bearer of this surname is the fictional character Rhett Butler, created by Margaret Mitchell for her novel 'Gone with the Wind' (1936).
Occupational name from Sicilian càjitu
"official, leader", ultimately from Arabic قاضي (qadi)
Occupational name from Late Latin campana
meaning "bell", ultimately derived from the Italian region of Campania, where bells were produced.
From the ecclesiastical usage of canon
, referring to a church official or servant who worked in a clergy house.
From Late Latin cappa
meaning "cloak, cape, hood". This was a name for one who made or wore cloaks.
Occupational name meaning "captain" in Italian, ultimately from Latin caput
Occupational name for a carter, from Middle English carre
"cart" (of Latin origin) and man
From the occupation, derived from Middle English carpentier
(ultimately from Latin carpentarius
meaning "carriage maker").
Occupational name for a person who operated a cart to transport goods, from Norman French caretier
Occupational surname for a carver, from Middle English kerve
Occupational name for one who made leggings, derived from Old French chausse
Means "horse" in Italian, an cccupational name for a horseman.
Derived from Czech chalupa
meaning "cottage". The name referred to a peasant farmer who owned a very small piece of land.
Occupational name for one who looked after the inner rooms of a mansion, from Norman French chambrelain
From Old French chambre
"chamber, room", an occupational name for a person who worked in the inner rooms of a mansion.
Occupational name for an administrator, a chancellor, from Norman French chancelier
Occupational surname meaning "candle seller" or "candle maker" in Middle English, ultimately derived from Old French.
Occupational name derived from Old English ceapmann
meaning "merchant, trader".
From a diminutive of the Old French word chape
meaning "cloak, hood". The name referred to a person who made, sold or often wore cloaks.
Means "leather worker" in Persian, from چرم (charm)
"leather" combined with چی (chi)
, denoting an occupation.
Meant "cart" in Old French, used to denote a carter or a cartwright.
Occupational name for a hunter, from Middle English chase
From a diminutive of chèvre
meaning "goat", indicating a person who cultivated goats.
Derived from Czech chmel
"hops", referring to a person who grew hops, a plant used in brewing beer.
Means "cleric" or "scribe", from Old English clerec
meaning "priest", ultimately from Latin clericus
. A famous bearer was William Clark (1770-1838), an explorer of the west of North America.
Means simply "clay", originally referring to a person who lived near or worked with of clay.
Derived from French clou
meaning "nail", referring to someone who made or sold nails.
From the Portuguese word for "rabbit", either a nickname or an occupational name referring to a hunter or seller of rabbits.
Means "priest" from Hebrew כֹּהֵן (kohen)
. It originally denoted one of the priestly tribe of Levi.
From Italian cuoio
meaning "leather", ultimately from Latin corium
. This was an occupational surname for a leather worker or tanner.
From Romanian cojoc
meaning "sheepskin coat". This was an occupational name for a maker of these coats.
Either from Italian colomba
"dove" indicating a dove keeper, or from the given name COLOMBO
which is derived from the same word. This was the Italian surname of the 15th-century explorer Christopher Columbus.
From Middle English connere
meaning "inspector", an occupational name for an inspector of weights and measures.
From Old French conestable
, ultimately from Latin comes stabuli
meaning "officer of the stable".
From the Italian noble title conte
meaning "count", derived from Latin comes
. It denoted a person who worked for a count or, in rare cases, was a count.
Derived from Old English coc
meaning "cook", ultimately from Latin coquus
. It was an occupational name for a cook, a man who sold cooked meats, or a keeper of an eating house.
Derived from Old French cornet
meaning "horn", referring to one who worked as a horn blower.
Derived from Old French cordoan
"leather", ultimately from the name of the Spanish city of Cordova.
Derived from Middle English cotter
meaning "cottager", referring to a small tenant farmer.
From Middle English coupe
meaning "barrel", a name for a barrel maker or cooper.
Occupational name derived from Middle English croppe
"crop", referring to a fruit picker or a crop reaper.
Derived from Czech čtvrtlán
meaning "one quarter of a lán", where a lán
is a medieval Czech measure of land (approximately 18 hectares). The name denoted someone who owned this much land.
Occupational surname meaning "dean", referring to a person who either was a dean or worked for one. It is from Middle English deen
(ultimately from Latin decanus
meaning "chief of ten").
Means "iron" in Turkish, originally referring to an ironworker.
Occupational name meaning "dyer" in Old English (orginally this was a feminine word, but it was later applied to men as well).
From Old English dic
"ditch" combined with man
"man". It was originally a name for a ditch digger or someone who lived near a ditch.
Derived from Hungarian dob
meaning "drum". Originally the name was given to someone who played drums or made them.
Originally denoted someone who was a doctor, ultimately from Latin doctor
Occupational name for a maker or seller of woolen cloth, from Anglo-Norman French draper
(Old French drapier
, an agent derivative of drap
Means "a turner" from Middle High German drehen
"to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
Derived from Middle High German dreschen
"to thresh". A thresher was a person who separated the grains from a cereal plant by beating it.
Means "turner" from Middle High German dreseler
, an agent derivative of drehen
"to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
From Irish Ó hEidirsceóil
meaning "descendant of the messenger".
Occupational name for a baker, from French four
From the noble title, which was originally from Latin dux
"leader". It was an occupational surname for a person who behaved like a duke, or who worked in a duke's household.
Occupational name derived from Czech dvůr
"manor", indicating a person who worked at such a place. This name was borne by the Czech composer Antonín Dvořák (1841-1904).
Occupational name for a cloth dyer, from Old English deah
From the aristocratic title, which derives from Old English eorl
meaning "nobleman, warrior". It was either a nickname for one who acted like an earl, or an occupational name for a person employed by an earl.
South German occupational name for a plowman or farmer, derived from German eggen
"to harrow, to plow".
Occupational name meaning "forester", derived from Hungarian erdő
Means "cartwright", related to Old High German ahsa
From Italian fabbro
meaning "blacksmith", ultimately from Latin faber
Derived from Italian falco
"falcon". The name was used to denote a falconer or a person who resembled a falcon in some way.
An occupational name for a woodcutter, from Hungarian farag
meaning "carve, cut".
Occupational name meaning "dyer", derived from German Farbe
Occupational name for a miller, derived from Italian farina
Occupational name for a tax collector, from Middle English ferme
"rent, revenue, provision", from Medieval Latin firma
, ultimately from Old English feorm
. This word did not acquire its modern meaning until the 17th century.
, a German carnival (Fastnacht
meaning "eve of the beginning of the fast", or the time before Lent) celebrated in Austria and Bavaria, and bauer