in Czech, from ryba
Topographic name. It could be a misdivision of the Middle English phrases atter ye
meaning "at the island"
or atter eye
meaning "at the river"
. In some cases it merely indicated a person who lived where rye was grown or worked with rye (from Old English ryge
Occupational name for a make of saddles, from Old English sadol
Possibly from the city of Sapperton, England, derived from Old English sapere
meaning "soap maker" and tun
meaning "enclosure, yard, town".
From Old French savatier "shoemaker"
, derived from savate
"shoe", of uncertain ultimate origin.
Occupational name meaning "sawer of wood, woodcutter"
in Middle English, ultimately from Old English sagu
meaning "saw". Mark Twain used it for the main character in his novel The Adventures of Tom Sawyer
Occupational name meaning "acrobat, dancer"
, derived from Old French sailleor
, from Latin sallitor
Denoted a person who sold or made clothes made of scarlet, a kind of cloth, possibly derived from Persian سقرلاط (saghrelat)
from Italian scarpa
SCHENK German, Dutch
From Middle High German, Middle Dutch schenke
meaning "wine server"
(from Old High German scenken
"to pour out").
Means "fencer, fencing master"
, from Old High German skirmen
meaning "to defend".
From Dutch school
, ultimately from Latin schola
, indicating a person who worked at or lived near a school.
Means "beer-porter, wine-porter"
in German, an occupational name for a carrier of wine or beer barrels.
From Middle High German schuochwürte
meaning "shoemaker, cobbler"
From the Middle High German occupational name schuochmacher
Means "shoemaker, cobbler"
, from Middle High German schuoch
"shoe" and suter
, from Latin sutor
Means "watchman, guard"
from Middle High German schützen
SERGEANT English, French
Occupational name derived from Old French sergent
, ultimately from Latin servire
SEWARD (2) English
from Old English su
"sow, female pig" and hierde
Occupational name meaning "shepherd, sheep herder"
, from Old English sceaphyrde
SHERMAN (1) English
Means "shear man"
, referring to someone who used shears in his line of work, such as a sheep-shearer.
Occupational name for a fife player or piper, from Hungarian síp
Means "fine sieve"
in Polish, a diminutive of the Polish word sito
Occupational name for a person who skinned animals, from Old Norse skinn
Occupational name indicating that an early member worked covering roofs with slate, from Old French esclat
"shard", of Germanic origin.
Means "metalworker, blacksmith"
from Old English smiþ
, related to smitan
"to smite, to hit". It is the most common surname in most of the English-speaking world. A famous bearer was the Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).
SOBOL Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish
Occupational name for a fur trader, from the Slavic word soboli
meaning "sable, marten"
. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
From Italian soldato
, ultimately from Latin solidus
, a type of Roman coin.
SOMMER (2) German
From Middle High German sumber
meaning "basket, wickerwork, drum"
From Hungarian sör
. Originally the name was given to beer brewers.
Occupational name for an armourer or swordsman, from Italian spada "sword"
, Latin spatha
From Sicilian sparaciu
, an occupational name for an asparagus seller or grower.
From Old English spere "spear"
, an occupational name for a hunter or a maker of spears, or a nickname for a thin person.
in Italian, derived from Latin speciarius
Means "sharp nail"
in German, an occupational name for a nailsmith.
Occupational name for a maker of spoons or a maker of shingles, derived from Middle English spone
meaning "chip of wood, spoon".
Occupational name for one who tended horses, derived from Middle English steed
, in turn derived from Old English steda
Occupational name for a steelworker, from Old English stele
Occupational name for an administrative official of an estate or steward, from Old English stig
"house" and weard
"guard". The Stewart family (sometimes spelled Stuart
) held the Scottish crown for several centuries. One of the most famous members of the Stewart family was Mary, Queen of Scots.
Occupational name for a horse keeper, from Old English stod
"stallion, stud" and hierde
Name for a person who lived near a prominent stone or worked with stone, derived from Old English stan
Occupational name for a maker of string or bow strings, from Old English streng "string"
STRUNA Slovene, Czech
From Slavic struna
meaning "string, cord"
, possibly denoting a maker of rope.
Occupational name for a summoner, an official who was responsible for ensuring the appearance of witnesses in court, from Middle English sumner
, ultimately from Latin submonere
Possibly means "drummer"
, from Italian tamburo
Occupational name for a person who tanned animal hides, from Old English tannian
"to tan", itself from Late Latin and possibly ultimately of Celtic origin.
in German, derived from Middle High German tanzen
From Middle English taske
meaning "task, assignment"
. A tasker was a person who had a fixed job to do, particularly a person who threshed grain with a flail.
Derived from Old French tailleur
, ultimately from Latin taliare
TEKE (2) Turkish
Occupational name for a goat herder, from Turkish teke "goat"
From Bosnian terzija
, ultimately of Persian origin.
in Czech, ultimately from the Slavic word tesla
Referred to a person who thatched roofs by attaching straw to them, derived from Old English þæc
Occupational name for a mender of kettles, pots and pans. The name could derive from the tinking sound made by light hammering on metal. It is possible that the word comes from the word tin
, the material with which the tinker worked.
Occupational name meaning "tax gatherer"
, derived from Old English toln
"toll, fee, tax".
Occupational name for a fuller of cloth, derived from Old English tucian
meaning "offend, torment". A fuller was a person who cleaned and thickened raw cloth by pounding it.
Occupational name for a herdsman, derived from Middle English toupe "ram"
Occupational name for one who worked with a lathe, derived from Old English turnian
"to turn", of Latin origin.
Occupational name for a tiler of roofs, derived from Old English tigele
"tile". A famous bearer of this name was American president John Tyler (1790-1862).
in Italian, originally denoting a person who worked with cattle.
From Hungarian vad
, either a nickname or an occupational name for a hunter of wild game.
Means "customs officer"
in Hungarian, a derivative of vám
in Russian (ultimately from German), referring to a person who worked at a vineyard or lived near one.
WEAVER (1) English
Occupational name for a weaver, derived from Old English wefan
Occupational name meaning "weaver"
, from Old English webba
, a derivative of wefan
From German Wein
, an occupational name for a wine seller or producer.
Occupational name for a maker of wagon wheels, derived from Middle English whele "wheel"
Occupational name for a forester, meaning "ward of the wood"
in Old English.
From Old English geat
, a name for a gatekeeper or someone who lived near a gate.
ZIMMERMANN German, Jewish
From the German word for "carpenter"
, derived from Middle High German zimber
"timber, wood" and mann
ŽITNIK Slovene, Czech
From the Slavic root žito
. This was an occupational name for a dealer in rye or a baker.