Pronunciation Guide

This site uses two systems for name pronunciations: basic, which is a rough guide, and IPA, which is more exact. IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) pronunciations can be identified by the /slashes/ surrounding them.

As of yet, most names do not have IPA pronunciations. The pronunciations listed at a name's entry can be clicked for more details. User-submitted names may or may not adhere to these standards.

Basic Pronunciations

Dashes are used to separate syllables. Stressed syllables are written in CAPITALS.

Consonants
Bas in bed
CHas in cheek (tsh)
Das in dam
DHas in then
Fas in fake
Gas in give
GHas in Scottish laghail
Has in hen
Jas in jump (dzh)
Kas in cat
KHas in Scottish loch
Las in lamp
Mas in maze
Nas in not
NGas in fling, sink
Pas in pain
Ras in right *
Sas in side
SHas in shine
Tas in top
THas in thin
Vas in very
Was in water
Yas in yeti
Zas in zebra
ZHas in azure, vision
Vowels
Aas in bat, can
AHas in pot, con **
AWas in bought, sawn **
AYas in bait, cane
Eas in bet, care
EEas in beet, keen
Ias in bit, kin
IEas in bite, kind
Oas in boat, cone
OIas in boy, coin
OOas in boot, soon
OWas in bout, gown
Uas in but, sun
UIas in Dutch huis
UUas in French feu
UWas in put, took
UYas in French rue
əas in about
Other symbols
:preceding vowel is long (drawn out)
guttural fricative
glottal stop
Hpreceding consonant is aspirated
Npreceding vowel is nasalized
Tepenthetic t
Ypreceding sound is palatalized
əfollowing consonant is syllabic

* R is used to represent several different r-like sounds. For further clarification the following may be used: gutteral RH (as in French riche); trilled RR (as in Spanish rojo); or tapped (as in Spanish caro).

** Many English speakers pronounce AH and AW the same

IPA Pronunciations

These pronunciations are surrounded by /slashes/. Periods are used to separate syllables. Stressed syllables are preceded by a ˈ symbol.

Symbols
.syllable break
aopen front unrounded vowel
bvoiced bilabial stop
cvoiceless palatal stop
çvoiceless palatal fricative
dvoiced alveolar stop
eclose-mid front unrounded vowel
fvoiceless labiodental fricative
gvoiced velar stop
hvoiceless glottal fricative
iclose front unrounded vowel
jvoiced palatal approximant
kvoiceless velar stop
lalveolar lateral approximant
mbilabial nasal
nalveolar nasal
oclose-mid back rounded vowel
ôfalling tone
õnasalized
ōmid tone
ŏextra-short
öcentralized
őextra high tone
ǒrising tone
ȍextra low tone
alveolar
voiceless (use if character has descender)
advanced tongue root
retracted tongue root
not audibly released
less rounded
raised
lowered
advanced
retracted
breathy voiced
voiceless
syllabic
dental
voiced
non-syllabic
creaky voiced
velarized or pharyngealized
more rounded
apical
laminal
linguolabial
mid-centralized
labial spreading
o͜otie bar below
o͡otie bar above
pvoiceless bilabial stop
qvoiceless uvular stop
ralveolar trill
svoiceless alveolar sibilant
tvoiceless alveolar stop
uclose back rounded vowel
vvoiced labiodental fricative
wvoiced labio-velar approximant
xvoiceless velar fricative
yclose front rounded vowel
zvoiced alveolar sibilant
|minor (foot) break
æraised open front unrounded vowel
ðvoiced dental fricative
øfront close-mid rounded vowel
ħvoiceless pharyngeal fricative
ŋvoiced velar nasal
œfront open-mid rounded vowel
ɓvoiced bilabial implosive
ɔopen-mid back rounded vowel
ɖvoiced retroflex plosive
ɗvoiced alveolar implosive
əmid central vowel
ɛopen-mid front unrounded vowel
ɠvoiced velar implosive
ɣvoiced velar fricative
ɩpre-1989 form of "ɪ" (obsolete)
ɨclose central unrounded vowel
ɯclose back unrounded vowel
ɲpalatal nasal
ɵclose-mid central rounded vowel
ʀuvular trill
ʃvoiceless postalveolar fricative
ʈvoiceless retroflex plosive
ʊnear-close near-back vowel
ʋlabiodental approximant
ʒvoiced postalveolar fricative
ǀdental click
ǁalveolar lateral click
ǂalveolar click
ǃretroflex click
ɐnear-open central vowel
ɑopen back unrounded vowel
ɒopen back rounded vowel
ɕvoiceless alveolo-palatal fricative
ɘclose-mid central unrounded vowel
ɚrhotacized mid central vowel
ɜopen-mid central unrounded vowel
ɝrhotacized open-mid central unrounded vowel
ɞopen-mid central rounded vowel
ɟvoiced palatal plosive
ɡvoiced velar plosive
ɢvoiced uvular plosive
ɤclose-mid back unrounded vowel
ɥlabial-palatal approximant
ɦvoiced glottal fricative
ɧvoiceless multiple-place fricative
ɪnear-close near-front unrounded vowel
ɫvelarized alveolar lateral approximant
ɬvoiceless alveolar lateral fricative
ɭretroflex lateral approximant
ɮvoiced alveolar lateral fricative
ɰvelar approximant
ɱlabiodental nasal
ɳretroflex nasal
ɴuvular nasal
ɶopen front rounded vowel
ɷpre-1989 form of "ʊ" (obsolete)
ɸvoiceless bilabial fricative
ɹalveolar approximant
ɺalveolar lateral flap
ɻretroflex approximant
ɼalveolar trill
ɽretroflex flap
ɾalveolar tap
ɿsyllabic voiced alveolar fricative (Sinologist usage)
ʁvoiced uvular fricative
ʂvoiceless retroflex fricative
ʄvoiced palatal implosive
ʅapical retroflex unrounded vowel (Sinologist usage)
ʆvoiceless alveolo-palatal fricative (obsolete)
ʇdental click (obsolete)
ʉclose central rounded vowel
ʌopen-mid back unrounded vowel
ʍvoiceless labiovelar approximant
ʎpalatal lateral approximant
ʏnear-close near-front rounded vowel
ʐvoiced retroflex fricative
ʑvoiced alveolo-palatal fricative
ʓvoiced alveolo-palatal fricative (obsolete)
ʔglottal stop
ʕvoiced pharyngeal fricative
ʖalveolar lateral click (obsolete)
ʗpostalveolar click (obsolete)
ʘbilabial click
ʙbilabial trill
ʚa mistake for [œ]
ʛvoiced uvular implosive
ʜvoiceless epiglottal fricative
ʝvoiced palatal fricative
ʞvelar click (obsolete)
ʟvelar lateral approximant
ʠ"voiceless" uvular implosive (obsolete)
ʡepiglottal plosive
ʢvoiced epiglottal fricative
ʣvoiced alveolar affricate (obsolete - d͡z)
ʤvoiced postalveolar affricate (obsolete - d͡ʒ d͜ʒ)
ʥvoiced alveolo-palatal affricate (obsolete - d͡ʑ d͜ʑ)
ʦvoiceless alveolar affricate (obsolete - t͡s t͜s)
ʧvoiceless postalveolar affricate (obsolete - t͡ʃ t͜ʃ)
ʨvoiceless alveolo-palatal affricate (obsolete - t͡ɕ t͜ɕ)
ʩvelopharyngeal fricative
ʪvoiceless lateral alveolar fricative
ʫvoiced lateral alveolar fricative
ʬbilabial percussive
ʭbidental percussive
ʮsyllabic labialized voiced alveolar fricative (Sinologist usage)
ʯapical retroflex rounded vowel (Sinologist usage)
ʰaspirated
ʱbreathy-voice-aspirated
ʲpalatalized
ʴrhotacized
ʷlabialized
ʸpalatalized
ʼejective
ˀglottal stop
ˈprimary stress
ˌsecondary stress
ːlength mark
ˑhalf-length mark
˞rhotacized
ˠvelarized
ˤpharyngealized mark
˥extra high tone
˦high tone
˧mid tone
˨low tone
˩extra low tone
˪yin departing tone
˫yang departing tone
βvoiced bilabial fricative
θvoiceless dental fricative
χvoiceless uvular fricative
compressed rounding
near-close central unrounded vowel
major (intonation) break
linking
upstep
(becomes, is realized as — not recognized by the IPA)
downstep
global rise
global fall
◌᷄᷄macron-acute tone
◌᷅grave-macron tone
◌᷆macron-grave tone
◌᷇acute-macron tone
voiced labiodental flap