Sources Used

English, Old English, etc.

Bosworth and Toller. An Anglo-Saxon Dictionary (1898), available from

Cottle, Basil. Dictionary of Surnames. Penguin, 1978.

Evans, Cleveland Kent. The Great Big Book of Baby Names. Publications International, 2006.

Hanks, Patrick. Dictionary of American Family Names. Oxford, 2003.

Reaney, P. H. and R. M. Wilson. A Dictionary of English Surnames. Oxford, 1997.

Searle, William George. Onomasticon Anglo-Saxonicum. Cambridge, 1897.

Withycombe, Elizabeth Gidley. The Oxford Dictionary of English Christian Names. Oxford, 1945.

Anglo-Saxon Chronicle, available from

Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England, available from


Ahmed, Salahuddin. A Dictionary of Muslim Names. New York University, 1999.

Al-Ja'fari, Fatimah Suzanne. Digest of Muslim Names. Amana Publications, 1997.

Hakeem, Ahmed A. A Treasury of Favorite Muslim Names. Pearl Publications, 1997.

Wehr, Hans. A Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic. Spoken Language Services, 1979.


Kohlenberger III, John R. NIV Compact Nave's Topical Bible. Zondervan, 1993.

Strong, James. The Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible. New York, 1890.

Blue Letter Bible, available from

Church Slavonic Bible, available from

Oxford Study Bible. Oxford, 1992.

Celtic, Irish, Welsh, etc.

Black, George Fraser. The Surnames of Scotland. New York: New York Public Library, 1946.

Bromwich, Rachel. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Triads of the Island of Britain. 4th ed., University of Wales, 2014.

Dixon-Kennedy, Mike. Celtic Myth & Legend. Blandford, 1996.

Flanagan, Laurence. Favourite Irish Names for Children. Gill and Macmillan, 1993.

Koch, John T. Celto-Germanic, available from

MacBain, Alexander. An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language, available from

MacFarlane, Malcolm. The School Gaelic Dictionary. Stirling: Eneas Mackay, 1912.

MacKillop, James. Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, 1998.

Mark, Colin. The Gaelic-English Dictionary. Routledge, 2003.

Matasović, Ranko. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Celtic. Brill, 2009.

O'Brien, Kathleen M. Index of Names in Irish Annals, available from

Ó Corráin, Donnchadh and Fidelma Maguire. Irish Names. Lilliput Press, 1992.

Woulfe, Patrick. Irish Names And Surnames, available from

Am Faclair Beag, available from

An Electronic Dictionary of the Irish Language, available from

Foclóir Gaeilge-Béarla, available from

Geiriadur Prifysgol Cymru, available from

Germanic, Norse, etc.

Bielefeld, Knud. Beliebte Vornamen, available from

Drosdowski, Günther. Duden Lexikon der Vornamen. Mannheim, 1968.

Förstemann, Ernst. Altdeutsches Namenbuch. Bonn, 1900.

Köbler, Gerhard. Althochdeutsches Wörterbuch, available from

Köbler, Gerhard. Altsächsisches Wörterbuch, available from

Köbler, Gerhard. Altniederfränkisches Wörterbuch, available from

Köbler, Gerhard. Gotisches Wörterbuch, available from

Kohlheim, Rosa and Volker Kohlheim. Duden Lexikon der Vornamen. Mannheim, 2007.

Kroonen, Guus. Etymological Dictionary of Proto-Germanic. Brill, 2013.

Nieuwenhuijsen, Kees. Names in the Low Countries before 1150, available from

Orel, Vladimir. A Handbook of Germanic Etymology. Brill, 2003.

Peterson, Lena. Nordiskt runnamnslexikon. Uppsala, 2007.

Nederlandse Familienamenbank, available from

Nederlandse Voornamenbank, available from

Nordic Names Wiki, available from

Viking Answer Lady Webpage, available from


Liddell, Scott and Jones. A Greek–English Lexicon, available from

Greek Mythology Link, available from

Lexicon of Greek Personal Names, available from


Gandhi, Maneka. Hindu Names. Penguin, 1992.

Monier-Williams, Monier. Sanskrit-English Dictionary, available from

Indigenous American

Boot, Erik. Classic Maya Vocabulary of Hieroglyphic Readings, available from

Wall, Leon and William Morgan. Navajo-English Dictionary, available from

Cheyenne Dictionary, available from

Greenlandic to English Dictionary, available from

Nahuatl Dictionary, available from

Latin, Romance, etc.

Uckelman, Sara L. Names in the 1292 census of Paris, available from

Vaan, Michiel de. Etymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages. Brill, 2008.

Cognomi Italiani, available from

Dictionnaire Étymologique de l'Ancien Français, available from

Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques (INSEE: French name statistics), available from

Instituto Nacional de Estadística (INE: Spanish name statistics), available from

Istituto Nazionale di Statistica (ISTAT: Italian name statistics), available from

Nomix, available from

Nova Roma: Roman Name, available from

Mythology & Literature

Bruce, Christopher. Arthurian Name Dictionary, available from

Cotterell, Arthur and Rachel Storm. Ultimate Encyclopedia of Classical Mythology. Select Editions, 2000.

Turner, Patricia and Charles Russell Coulter. Dictionary of Ancient Deities. Oxford, 2000.


Benson, Morton. Dictionary of Russian Personal Names. Cambridge, 1992.

Derksen, Rick. Etymological Dictionary of the Slavic Inherited Lexicon. Brill, 2008.

Goldschmidt, Paul. A Dictionary of Period Russian Names, available from

Medieval Icon Art, available from



Haddadou, M. A.. Recueil de Prenoms Amazighs. Algiers, 2003.

Lawson, Edwin. Pronunciation and Meaning of Azeri Names, available from

Lawson, Edwin. Pronunciation and Meaning of Estonian Names, available from

Lin Shan. What's in a Chinese Name. Federal Publications, 1986.

Musere, Jonathan. Traditional African Names. Scarecrow Press, 2000.

O'Neill, P. G. Japanese Names. Weatherhill, 1989.

Akkadian Dictionary, available from

Zoroastrian Names, available from


Everett-Heath, John. World Place Names. Oxford, 2005.

Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of First Names. Oxford, 1990.

Hanks, Patrick and Flavia Hodges. A Dictionary of Surnames. Oxford, 1998.

Pokorny, Julius. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Francke, 1959.

Sheard, K. M. Llewellyn's Complete Book of Names. Llewellyn, 2017.

Uckelman, Sara L, ed. Dictionary of Medieval Names from European Sources, available from

Catholic Online: Saints, available from

Forebears, available from

Friesian School: Dynasties and Lists of Rulers, available from

Medieval Names Archive, available from

Online Etymology Dictionary, available from

Wikipedia, available from

Wiktionary, available from


I have also received help from people who have frequented this website. I would especially like to thank:

  • Bjoern Fredrik Meyer from Norway for all of the Scandinavian names
  • Costas Skandalis from Athens for the Greek and Latin name corrections
  • Noam Hendren from Israel
  • Hopalong on A.O.L. for the Slavic names
  • Jörg Benscheidt from Germany for all of the variations of George/Jörg
  • L. Mulry Tetlow for the information on Moses
  • Dr. Denis Constales from Belgium for numerous corrections
  • Hormazed Limbuwala for the Persian names
  • Hartmut Haberland from Germany for his thoughts on Catherine and Heidrun
  • Aki Ozawa in Japan for the information on Japanese names
  • Lucjan for the Polish name variants
  • Gilbert B. Cote for the notes on the Greek names
  • Blair Miles for miscellaneous corrections
  • Teuvo for the Finnish names
  • Wlodzimierz for Polish names and Slavic name elements
  • Wolf-Dieter Schubert for more German names than I know what to do with
  • BlessedG for her idea
  • Nina M for random corrections
  • Faith Rudin for her extremely exhaustive lists
  • Anthony Ferry for his thoughts on Irish names
  • Ivanka from Hamburg, Germany for her big list of names
  • Aleksandra for the Polish names and corrections
  • Guido Buldrini for the Italian names
  • Christiana for the huge list of names
  • Vesa Lehtinen for the huge list of Finnish names
  • Pavlos, Nanaea, and Daividh for earning the title OnomaMasters of!
  • Selwyn for the Danish monarchy info, and Selwyn and Phyllis for the Shakespeare info
  • Anna Golitsyna for her notes on Russian names
  • My friend Marta from Barcelona for the info on Spanish and Catalan names
  • Charlotte for the Welsh nature names
  • Nanaea for the Esperanto names
  • Nanaea for the Gothic names for the random name generator
  • Károly Tutajos for many corrections to the Hungarian entries
  • Golsa for the list of Iranian names
  • Eduardo Porcher for many Portuguese and Armenian names
  • Ramona for the list of Romanian names
  • Michaela for the Czech name corrections
  • Hedwig for the Dutch name corrections
  • Elder for his orderly list of missing Portuguese names
  • Vasilica for his complete list of Romanian names
  • Great 1 for lists of Croatian names
  • Zvonimir for various notes on Slavic names
  • Kristján for some Icelandic names
  • Fredrika from Sweden for corrections
  • Berker from Turkey for additions
  • Cro Man for his well-organized list of Croatian names
  • Tomislav for corrections to the Croatian and Serbian names
  • Shingayi for the Shona names
  • Matti from Finland for the list of Finnish names
  • Araceli for the Galician names
  • Bostjan for the fantastic list of Slovenian names
  • Carol from Brazil for the Portuguese names and corrections
  • Kati for the Finnish names
  • Narinoc for the popular Hungarian names
  • Gabor K. for the corrections to the Hungarian names
  • Sugarcubebabe7 for the many Basque names
  • Marjolijn for the Dutch and Frisian names and pronunciations
  • Patrick for the Hungarian name help
  • Riina from Toronto for the Estonian names
  • Miranda, Lala, Chrisell and Mirfak for helping to moderate the message boards!
  • Andy ;~) (with the long nose) for notes and clarifications on various names
  • Ivayla for several emails re Bulgarian names over the years (and for her helpful website)
  • E. MacKenna for the Irish and Welsh names
  • Sissi for the Greenlandic names
  • Blerta for some Albanian names
  • Franc for the scans of the Slovenian name dictionary
  • Erika for the list of Estonian names
  • Maddy for the Japanese names and meanings
  • P. N. Hobma for some missing Dutch and Frisian names
  • Tsukiko Takahashi for the Japanese names
  • Countless users for attaching helpful comments to the names
  • Claudia Segger for help transcribing and explaining ALL the Japanese names!
  • Lucille for filling a good part of the submitted names database, and for the Limburgish names!
  • X-Mar for beta-testing
  • Sanja aka Sofia for the comprehensive lists of Croatian names
  • Goricar for the Croatian name notes
  • Nikki for the Macedonian names
  • Maja for the Serbian name additions
  • Maks for sourcing and compiling several popularity lists
  • The editors of the submitted names database for molding raw data into onomastic gold!