Scottish Kings and Queens

Thanks to J. Evans for providing the list of rulers.

Gaels migrated from Ireland to western Scotland (which was called Caledonia at the time by the Romans) in the 5th century, after the Romans had retreated from Britain, and there established the kingdom of Dál Riata in Argyllshire. The lists presented here begin with the kings of Dál Riata.

The north of Scotland was controlled by the Picts, an ancient Celtic people. Conflict and intermixing between the Scots and the Picts continued until the two realms were finally merged under the Dál Riatan king Kenneth mac Alpin around the year 850. The exact reasons for Kenneth's rise to power over the Picts are not clear, but it is apparent that many of the lords of both the Picts and the Scots had been killed in wars with invading Vikings. The kingdom was known as Alba, and by 1034 it had incorporated the Briton kingdom of Strathclyde in the south.

Struggles with the English and periods of domination followed over the next few centuries, but Scottish independence was ultimately asserted by Robert the Bruce, who became king of Scotland in 1306. Shortly afterwards, starting with Robert II, the Stuart royal family began its long rule in Scotland. Their reign was marked by periods of internal unrest and conflict with England. However in 1603 the Stuart king James VI, son of Mary Queen of Scots, succeeded to the English throne, and the Scottish Crown was formally merged with that of England by the Act of Union in 1707.

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NameYears
Aed Find the White739-778
Aed Whitefoot877-878
Aedan mac Gabhranc. 574-c. 609
Ainbcellach mac Ferchar697-698
Alexander I the Fierce1107-1124
Alexander II1214-1249
Alexander III1249-1286
Alpín mac Eochaidc. 733
Alpín mac Feredaig775-778
Anne1702-1707
Edward Balliol1332-1336
John Balliol1292-1296
Bridei mac Fergus761-763
Causantín I862-877
Causantín II900-943
Causantín III995-997
Causantín mac Fergus789-820
Charles I1625-1649
Charles II1649-1685
Cináed I mac Ailpín841-859
Cináed II971-995
Cináed III997-1005
Ciniod mac Feradaig763-775
Comgall mac Domangartc. 507-c. 538
Conall Crandomna650-660
Conall mac Comgall558-574
Conall mac Taidg785-789
Connad Cerr629
Cuilén967-971
David I1124-1153
David II1329-1332; 1336-1371
Domangart mac Domnal660-673
Domangart mac Fergusc. 501-c. 507
Domnall Brecc the Freckled629-642
Domnall Donn688-696
Domnall I859-862
Domnall II Dasachtach889-900
Domnall III Bane1093-1094; 1094-1097
Donnchad I the Gracious1034-1040
Donnchad II1094
Drust782-783
Drust mac Constantine834-837
Dub962-967
Dunchad mac Conaing650-654
Dungal mac Selbach723-726
Edgar1097-1107
Edmund1094-1097
Eochaid878-889
Eochaid Buidec. 609-629
Eochaid Crook-Nose697
Eochaid mac Eochaid726-733
Eogan mac Muiredachc. 736-c. 739
Eoganan mac Oengus837-839
Ferchar Fota696-697
Ferchar mac Connad642-650
Fergus mac Eochaid778-781
Fergus Morc. 500-c. 501
Fiannamail mac Conall698-700
Gabhran mac Domangartc. 538-c. 558
Giric878-889
Idulb954-962
James I1406-1437
James VI1567-1625
James II1437-1460
James VII1685-1689
James III1460-1488
James IV1488-1513
James V1513-1542
Lulach the Simple1057-1058
Mac Bethad1040-1057
Máel Coluim I943-954
Máel Coluim II1005-1034
Máel Coluim III Canmore Bighead1058-1093
Maelduin mac Conall673-688
Malcolm IV the Maiden1153-1165
Margaret the Maid of Norway1286-1290
Mary I Queen of Scots1542-1567
Mary II1689-1694
Muiredach mac Ainbcellachc. 733-c. 736
Óengus732-761
Oengus mac Fergus820-834
Robert I the Bruce1306-1329
Robert II1371-1390
Robert III1390-1406
Selbach mac Ferchar700-723
Talorc mac Óengusa778-782
Uurad839-842
William I the Lion1165-1214
William III of Orange1689-1702