The popularity of the name in continental Europe was due to the fame of Charles the Great (742-814), commonly known as Charlemagne, a king of the Franks who came to rule over most of Europe. His grandfather Charles Martel had also been a noted leader of the Franks. It was subsequently the name of several Holy Roman emperors, as well as kings of France, Spain, Portugal, Sweden and Hungary (in various spellings). After Charlemagne, his name was adopted as a word meaning "king" in many Eastern European languages, for example Czech král, Hungarian király, Russian король (korol), and Turkish kral.
The name did not become common in Britain until the 17th century when it was borne by the Stuart king Charles I. It had been introduced into the Stuart royal family by Mary Queen of Scots, who had been raised in France.
Famous bearers of the name include naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) who revolutionized biology with his theory of evolution, novelist Charles Dickens (1812-1870) who wrote such works as Great Expectations and A Tale of Two Cities, French statesman Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970), and American cartoonist Charles Schulz (1922-2000), the creator of the Peanuts comic strip.
Although used more often on females, this name is also used on boys (albeit rarely). One fictional male bearer of this name is Momiji Sōma (草摩 紅葉) who appeared in the Japanese anime, Fruits Basket.
Kane was slightly uncommon in the early part of the Edo period (1603-1838), though it became popular in the middle and latter part of that period and in the Meiji period (1868-1912). However, the name's popularity slowly decreased by then and by the Taishō period (1912-1926), the name became uncommon to use.
When used as 初, it is, according to Suzuki Sakaye, usually used as the name of the first daughter.
Hatsu was very popular in the Edo period (1603-1868), but by the latter part of the Meiji period (1868-1912) it was dropping down in popularity and by the Taishō period/era (1912-1926), it became uncommon.
Regarding 伊織, it belongs as an 'azuma hyakkan' (東百官) name, in which they are like hyakkanna (百官名), a court rank-style name that samurai used to announce oneself and give himself authority, but come from the names of government offices in the Kantō region.
The combinations, apart from the first one and the ones with 3 kanji, are unisex. The first combination is mainly used on males (albeit rarely) and the combinations w/ 3 kanji are used on females (albeit rarely).
Iori (庵 & 伊織) is also used as a surname.
This name can also be used as えり子 with two phonetic characters making up Eri connecting with 子.
It's not known how popular Sono was in the early and middle part of the Edo period (1603-1868), but it was moderately popular in the latter part of that period. By the Meiji period (1868-1912), it dropped down in popularity, becoming uncommon by the end of that period and in the Taishō period (1912-1926).
One bearer of this name is manga artist and actor, Kotobuki Shiriagari (しりあがり 寿) (1958-), born Toshiki Mochidzuki (望月 寿城).
This name is very rarely used and is more commonly used as a surname.
A famous bearer of this name was Kenau Simonsdochter Hasselaer (1526–1588), a Dutch wood merchant from the city of Haarlem, who became a legendary folk hero for her fearless defense of the city against the Spanish invaders during the siege of Haarlem in 1573.
Other kanji combinations are possible.
This name is unrelated to the masculine name Marino, which has a wholly different origin.
A well-known bearer of this name is Anne-Aymone Giscard d'Estaing (b. 1933), the wife of the former French president Valéry Giscard d'Estaing (b. 1926).
One fictional bearer of this name is Umon Kondō, the Edo period constable and main character in the jidaigeki film series, Umon Torimonochō (右門捕物帖).
In modern times, it's rarely given to boys, if given at all.
Umon is also used as a surname.