Spanish Kings and Queens

In the 10th century all of Spain was under the control of the Islamic Caliphate of Cordoba, with the exception of the northern Kingdoms of Asturias and Navarre and the Spanish March. Sancho III of Navarre united the greater parts of these realms in the early 11th century, but upon his death his kingdom was split between his sons into Navarre, Aragon, and Castile. Castile soon merged with the Kingdom of León in the northwest of Spain, while Aragon and the county of Catalonia eventually merged in the east. Meanwhile the caliphate in the south had collapsed, and Castile and Aragon expanded their borders south until in 1248 the only Muslim possession in Spain was Granada (which lasted until 1492).

Castile and Aragon were united as Spain in 1479 when the husband and wife team of Fernando III of Aragon and Isabel I of Castile ascended the thrones. After their deaths the crown of Spain went to their grandson Carlos (the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V), a Habsburg, who also possessed extensive territories in Austria. Spain was ruled by the Spanish Habsburgs until 1700, at which time occurred the War of the Spanish Succession and the installment of a French Bourbon king, Felipe VI, as the ruler of Spain.

The monarchy was absent in Spain from 1808 to 1814 (as a result of Napoleon), and from 1931 to 1975.

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NameYears
Sancho III the Great (Navarre)1000-1035
Ramiro I (Aragon)1035-1063
Fernando I the Great (Castile)1035-1065
Sancho Ramirez (Aragon)1063-1094
Sancho II the Strong (Castile)1065-1072
Alfonso VI the Valiant (Castile)1072-1073
Pedro I (Aragon)1094-1104
Alfonso I the Warrior (Aragon)1104-1134
Urraca (Castile)1109-1126
Alfonso VII the Emperor (Castile)1126-1157
Ramiro II the Monk (Aragon)1134-1137
Petronilla (Aragon)1137-1164
Sancho III the Desired (Castile)1157-1158
Fernando II (Leon)1157-1188
Alfonso VIII the Noble (Castile)1158-1214
Alfonso II the Chaste (Aragon)1164-1196
Alfonso IX (Leon)1188-1230
Pedro II (Aragon)1196-1213
Jaime I the Conqueror (Aragon)1213-1276
Enrique I (Castile)1214-1217
Berenguela the Great (Castile)1217
Fernando III the Saint (Castile)1217-1252
Alfonso X the Wise (Castile)1252-1284
Pedro III the Great (Aragon)1276-1285
Sancho IV the Brave (Castile)1284-1295
Alfonso III (Aragon)1285-1291
Jaime II the Just (Aragon)1291-1327
Fernando IV the Summoned (Castile)1295-1312
Alfonso XI the Just (Castile)1312-1350
Alfonso IV the Good (Aragon)1327-1336
Pedro IV the Ceremonious (Aragon)1336-1387
Pedro the Cruel (Castile)1350-1369
Enrique II the Bastard (Castile)1369-1379
Juan I (Castile)1379-1390
Juan I (Aragon)1387-1396
Enrique III the Infirm (Castile)1390-1406
Martín the Kind (Aragon)1396-1410
Juan II (Castile)1406-1454
Fernando I (Aragon)1412-1416
Alfonso V the Magnanimous (Aragon)1416-1458
Enrique IV the Impotent (Castile)1454-1474
Juan II (Aragon)1458-1479
Isabel I the Catholic (Castile)1474-1504
Fernando II the Catholic (Aragon)1479-1516
Juana the Mad1504-1555
Felipe I the Handsome (Castile)1506
Carlos I1517-1556
Felipe II the Prudent1556-1598
Felipe III the Pious1598-1621
Felipe IV1621-1665
Carlos II the Bewitched1665-1700
Felipe V of Anjou1700-1724; 1724-1746
Luis I1724
Fernando VI1746-1759
Carlos III1759-1788
Carlos IV1788-1808
José Bonaparte1808-1813
Fernando VII1808; 1814-1833
Isabel II the Glorious1833-1868
Amadeo I of Savoy1870-1873
Alfonso XII1874-1885
Alfonso XIII1885-1931
Juan Carlos I1975-