Notable Philosophers and Thinkers

This list is comprised of some of the most recognizable names from the world of philosophy. Also included are mathematicians, theologians and those associated with the humanities and social science. However, those considered to be more in the camp of experimental science or invention are listed with the famous scientists.
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NameLifespanOther Names
Niels Henrik Abel1802-1829
Pierre Abélard1079-1142
Alfred Adler1870-1937
Theodor W. Adorno1903-1969
Maria Gaetana Agnesi1718-1799
Ahmad ibn Hanbal780-855
Alexis de Tocqueville1805-1859(Clérel, Tocqueville)
Abu Nasr Muhammad al-Farabic. 872-c. 950(Alpharabius, Farabi)
Abu Hamid Muhammad ibn Muhammad al-Ghazali1058-1111(Algazel)
Muhammad al-Idrisi1099-c. 1165
Muhammad ibn Musa al-Khwarizmic. 780-850(Algoritmi)
Abu Yusuf Yaqub al-Kindi801-873
Maurice Allais1911-2010
al-Masudi896-956
Abu Bakr Muhammad al-Razi865-925(Rhazes)
Ja'far al-Sadiq702-765
Al-Shafi'i767-820
Ammianus Marcellinusc. 325-c. 391
Anaxagorasc. 500-428 BC
Anaximanderc. 610-c. 546 BC
Anaximenes of Miletusc. 585-c. 528 BC
Anselm of Canterbury1033-1109
Apollonius of Pergac. 262-c. 190 BC
Appian of Alexandria95-165
Thomas Aquinas1225-1274
Archimedesc. 287-c. 212 BC
Archytas428-347 BC
Hannah Arendt1906-1975
Aristotle384-322 BC
Raymond Aron1905-1983
François-Marie Arouet "Voltaire"1694-1778(Voltaire)
Kenneth Arrow1921-2017
Aryabhata476-550
Graziadio Isaia Ascoli1829-1907
Atticus1xx-?
Augustine of Hippo354-430
Charles Babbage1791-1871
Francis Bacon1561-1626
Ruth Bader Ginsburg1933-2020
Stefan Banach1892-1945
Karl Barth1886-1968
David Benatar1966-
Jeremy Bentham1748-1832
Henri Bergson1859-1941
George Berkeley1685-1753
Ben Bernanke1953-
Daniel Bernoulli1700-1782
Boethius480-524
George Boole1815-1864
Pierre Bourdieu1930-2002
Giordano Bruno1548-1600
Judith Butler1956-
Joseph Campbell1904-1987
Albert Camus1913-1960
Georg Cantor1845-1918
Gerolamo Cardano1501-1576
Edward Carpenter1844-1929
Giovanni Domenico Cassini1625-1712
Lucius Cassius Dioc. 155-c. 235
Augustin-Louis Cauchy1789-1857
Jean-François Champollion1790-1832
Jean Chauvin1509-1564(Calvin)
Noam Chomsky1928-
Emil Cioran1911-1995
Zerah Colburn1804-1839
Auguste Comte1798-1857
Confuciusc. 551-479 BC(Kong)
Haskell Curry1900-1982
Vahakn Dadrian1926-2019
Sandra Day O'Connor1930-2023
Florimond de Beaune1601-1652
Simone de Beauvoir1908-1986
Pierre de Fermat1607-1665
Guidobaldo del Monte1545-1607
Democritusc. 460-c. 370 BC
Florimond de Raemond1540-1601(de Rémond)
Jacques Derrida1930-2004
Ferdinand de Saussure1857-1913
René Descartes1596-1650
Charles de Secondat1689-1755
John Dewey1859-1952
Denis Diderot1713-1784
Diogenes of Sinopec. 412-323 BC
Diophantus of Alexandriac. 205-c. 290
Esther Duflo1972-
Georges Dumézil1898-1986
Émile Durkheim1858-1917
Freeman Dyson1923-2020
Arthur Eddington1882-1944
Einhardc. 775-840
Mircea Eliade1907-1986
Norbert Elias1897-1990
Empedoclesc. 490-430 BC
Friedrich Engels1820-1895
Epictetusc. 55-c. 135
Epicurus341-270 BC
Desiderius Erasmus1466-1536
Eratosthenes of Cyrenec. 276-c. 195 BC
Paul Erdős1913-1996
Erik Erikson1902-1994
Rudolf Christoph Eucken1846-1926
Euclidc. 330-275 BC
Leonhard Euler1707-1783
Fibonaccic. 1170-c. 1250(Bonacci)
Johann Gottlieb Fichte1762-1814
Michel Foucault1926-1984
Joseph Fourier1768-1830
Abraham Fraenkel1891-1965
Francis of Assisic. 1182-1226
Viktor Frankl1905-1997
Gottlob Frege1848-1925
Anna Freud1895-1982
Sigmund Freud1856-1939
Milton Friedman1912-2006
Ragnar Frisch1895-1973
Erich Fromm1900-1980
Ljudevit Gaj1809-1872(Gay)
Évariste Galois1811-1832
Carl Friedrich Gauss1777-1855
Gautama Buddhac. 563-c. 483 BC
Geoffrey of Monmouthc. 1100-c. 1155
Kristalina Georgieva1953-(Kinova)
Sophie Germain1776-1831
Anthony Giddens1938-
Kurt Gödel1906-1978
Erving Goffman1922-1982
Emma Goldman1869-1940
Franciscus Gomarus1563-1641(Gomaer)
Gorgiasc. 485-c. 380 BC
Gregory of Toursc. 538-594
James Gregory1638-1675
Hugo Grotius1583-1645
Hakuin Ekaku1686-1769
G. H. Hardy1877-1947
Friedrich Hayek1899-1992
Hecataeus of Miletusc. 550-c. 476 BC
Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel1770-1831
Martin Heidegger1889-1976
Héloïsec. 1100-1163
Heraclitus of Ephesusc. 535-c. 475 BC
Hero of Alexandria10-70
Herodotusc. 484-425 BC
David Hilbert1862-1943
Hipparchus of Nicaeac. 190-c. 120 BC
Christopher Hitchens1949-2011
Thomas Hobbes1588-1679
David Hume1711-1776
Adolf Hurwitz1859-1919
Jan Husc. 1370-1415
Edmund Husserl1859-1938
Christiaan Huygens1629-1695
Hypatia of Alexandriac. 370-415
Ibn Khaldun1332-1406
Abu Ali al-Husayn ibn Sina980-1037(Avicenna)
Isidore of Seville560-636
William James1842-1910
Jean Le Rond d'Alembert1717-1783
Jesus Christc. 4 BC-c. 33
John Duns Scotusc. 1266-1308
Katherine Johnson1918-2020(Coleman)
Jordanes?-5xx
Josephus37-c. 100(Flavius)
Carl Jung1875-1961
Oriol Junqueras i Vies1969-
Daniel Kahneman1934-
Immanuel Kant1724-1804
Leonid Kantorovich1912-1986
Nikolay Karamzin1766-1826
John Maynard Keynes1883-1946
Omar Khayyám1048-1131
Søren Kierkegaard1813-1855
Karl Knies1821-1898
Donald Knuth1938-
Andrey Kolmogorov1903-1987
Jan Amos Komenský1592-1670(Comenius)
Sofya Kovalevskaya1850-1891
Pyotr Kropotkin1842-1921
Paul Krugman1953-
Thomas Kuhn1922-1996
Simon Kuznets1901-1985
Jacques Lacan1901-1981
Lactantiusc. 250-c. 325(Caecilius, Firmianus)
Joseph Louis Lagrange1736-1813(Lagrangia)
Laozi?-5xx BC
Pierre-Simon Laplace1749-1827
Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz1646-1716
Wassily Leontief1906-1999
Urbain Le Verrier1811-1877
Livyc. 64 BC-17(Livius, Patavinus)
Nikolai Lobachevsky1792-1856
Alain Locke1885-1954
John Locke1632-1704
Ada Lovelace1815-1852
Lucretiusc. 99-c. 55 BC(Carus)
Martin Luther1483-1546
Niccolò Machiavelli1469-1527(Machiavel)
Moses Maimonides1135-1204
Thomas Robert Malthus1766-1834
Benoit Mandelbrot1924-2010
Manetho?-2xx BC
Mani216-274
Marcus Aurelius121-180
Alfred Marshall1842-1924
Karl Marx1818-1883
Abraham Maslow1908-1970
Mazdak?-c. 524
Meng Kec. 372-c. 289 BC
Gerardus Mercator1512-1594
Fatema Mernissi1940-2015
Robert K. Merton1910-2003
Jules Michelet1798-1874
Stanley Milgram1933-1984
John Stuart Mill1806-1873
Ferdinand Minding1806-1885
Mo Dic. 470-c. 391 BC
Theodor Mommsen1817-1903
G. E. Moore1873-1958
Thomas More1478-1535
Abu'l-Walid Muhammad ibn Rushd1126-1198(Averroes)
Muhammad570-632
Max Müller1823-1900
Gunnar Myrdal1898-1987
Nagarjunac. 150-250
John Napier1550-1617
John Forbes Nash Jr.1928-2015
Isaac Newton1642-1727
Nicholas of Cusa1401-1464
Friedrich Nietzsche1844-1900
Emmy Noether1882-1935
Adolf Noreen1854-1925
Martha Nussbaum1947-
Helmuth Nyborg1937-
Origen184-253
Elinor Ostrom1933-2012
Luca Paciolic. 1447-1517
Panini?-4xx BC
Vilfredo Pareto1848-1923
Parmenides of Eleac. 515-c. 450 BC
Talcott Parsons1902-1979
Blaise Pascal1623-1662
Pausanias110-180
Charles Sanders Peirce1839-1914
Grigori Perelman1966-
Jordan Peterson1962-
Philoc. 20 BC-c. 50
Jean Piaget1896-1980
Platoc. 427-347 BC
Plotinusc. 205-270
Plutarchc. 46-120(Mestrius, Plutarchus)
Henri Poincaré1854-1912
Polybiusc. 200-c. 118 BC
Karl Popper1902-1994
Procopius of Caesarea500-565
Protagorasc. 490-c. 420 BC
Ptolemyc. 100-c. 168(Ptolemaeus)
Pyrrhoc. 360-c. 270 BC
Pythagorasc. 580-500 BC
Willard Van Orman Quine1908-2000
Srinivasa Ramanujan1887-1920
Rasmus Rask1787-1832
Wilhelm Reich1897-1957
Adolf Reinach1883-1917
David Ricardo1772-1823
Bernhard Riemann1826-1866
David Rittenhouse1732-1796
Carl Ritter1779-1859
Carl Rogers1902-1987
Nouriel Roubini1958-
Jean-Jacques Rousseau1712-1778
Rupert of Deutzc. 1075-1129
Bertrand Russell1872-1970
Sallust86-c. 35 BC(Sallustius, Crispus)
Paul Samuelson1915-2009
George Santayana1863-1952
Jean-Paul Sartre1905-1980
Hjalmar Schacht1877-1970
Arthur Schopenhauer1788-1860
Joseph Schumpeter1883-1950
Albert Schweitzer1875-1965
Amartya Sen1933-
Seneca the Younger4 BC-65
Claude Shannon1916-2001
Diodorus Siculus?-0xx BC
Sima Qianc. 145-86 BC(Szu-ma)
Georg Simmel1858-1918
Josias Simmler1530-1576(Simler)
Ferdo Šišić1869-1940
B. F. Skinner1904-1990
Adam Smith1723-1790
Socratesc. 470-399 BC
Baruch Spinoza1632-1677
Rudolf Steiner1861-1925
Joseph Stiglitz1943-
Svetozar Stojanović1931-2010
Straboc. 64 BC-c. 24
Hew Strachan1949-
Suetonius69-122(Tranquillus)
Sun Tzuc. 544-c. 496 BC
Tacitusc. 56-c. 117(Cornelius)
Tertullianc. 160-c. 225(Septimius, Florens, Tertullianus)
Thalesc. 624-c. 546 BC
Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d'Holbach1723-1789(Dietrich)
Henry David Thoreau1817-1862
Thucydidesc. 460-c. 395 BC
Jan Tinbergen1903-1994
Jean Tirole1953-
Leonida Tonelli1885-1946
Arnold J. Toynbee1889-1975
Alan Turing1912-1954
Ulpianc. 170-223(Domitius, Annius, Ulpianus)
Karl Verner1846-1896(Werner)
Adolf von Harnack1851-1930(Harnack)
Alexander von Humboldt1769-1859
John von Neumann1903-1957(Neumann)
Ludwig von Strümpell1812-1899(Strümpell)
Lev Vygotsky1896-1934
Max Weber1864-1920
Alfred North Whitehead1861-1947
Norbert Wiener1894-1964
Andrew Wiles1953-
William of Ockhamc. 1287-1347
Geordie Williamson1981-
Johann Joachim Winckelmann1717-1768
Edward Witten1951-
Ludwig Wittgenstein1889-1951
Mary Wollstonecraft1759-1797
Wilhelm Wundt1832-1920
Xenophanes of Colophonc. 570-c. 475 BC
Xenophonc. 427-c. 355 BC
Janet Yellen1946-
Lotfi A. Zadeh1921-2017
L. L. Zamenhof1859-1917
Peter Wessel Zapffe1899-1990
Zeno of Citiumc. 334-c. 262 BC
Zeno of Eleac. 490-c. 430 BC
Philip Zimbardo1933-
Slavoj Žižek1949-
Zoroaster?-1xxx BC