in Polish. The name referred to one who acted like a king or was connected in some way with a king's household.
in Czech, a nickname for a person with curly locks of hair.
in Czech, a nickname for someone with curly hair.
Possibly from Polish kum "godfather, friend"
or komięga "raft, barge"
Habitational name for someone from any of the various locations named Kwiatków
, named from a diminutive of Polish kwiat
in Czech. It was most likely used to denote a person known for having a bad mood.
Patronymic name derived from Russian лагун (lagun)
meaning "water barrel"
. It was used to denote the descendants of a person who made water barrels.
Derived from Czech lán
, a measure of land equal to approximately 18 hectares. The name loosely translates as "farmer" and is considered a Moravian equivalent of Sedlák
Lenin Russian (Modern)
Surname adopted by the Russian revolutionary and founder of the former Soviet state Vladimir Ilyich Lenin (1870-1924), whose birth surname was Ulyanov
. He probably adapted it from the name of the River Lena in Siberia.
From the Polish estate name Lewandów
, which is itself possibly derived from a personal name or from lawenda
in Polish, a nickname for a sly person.
Derived from the given name Mach
, a Czech diminutive of Matěj
and other given names beginning with Ma
Derived from Polish maj
. It may have been given in reference to the month the bearer was baptized.
From Polish malina
, originally indicating a person who lived near a raspberry patch.
Referred to one who churned or sold butter or buttermilk, derived from Czech máslo "butter"
Indicated a person from either Mazovia (Polish Mazowsze
) or Masuria (Polish Mazury
), regions in Poland.
Possibly an occupational name derived from Polish maczarz
Habitational name for a person from a village named Michale
, both derived from the given name Michał
Mlakar Slovene, Croatian
Referred to someone who lived near a pool, derived from South Slavic mlaka
meaning "pool, puddle"
Originally indicated a person from Moravia (Czech Morava
in Polish. It probably referred to someone who worked with or sold mortar.
Possibly from a nickname meaning "the one who had to"
, from the past participle of the verb muset
meaning "must" (of Germanic origin).
From nickname derived from Czech myš
in Czech, from the verb navrátit
"to return", perhaps used to denote a person who came home following a long absence.
From Polish Niemiec
and the patronymic suffix -czyk
From place names meaning "new orchard"
Habitational name for a person from various towns called Nowakowo
or similar, derived from Polish nowy
Habitational name for a person from any of the towns in Poland called Nowice. The name is derived from Polish nowy
Patronymic derived from the Russian nickname Орёл (Oryol)
Pasternak Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Yiddish
in various Slavic languages, ultimately from Latin pastinaca
. A famous bearer was Boris Pasternak (1890-1960), author of Doctor Zhivago
Pavlov Russian, Bulgarian
Means "son of Pavel"
. A famous bearer of this surname was the Russian scientist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936), known for his discovery of the conditioned reflex.
Habitational name for someone from a town named Pawłowo
, derived from the given name Paweł
in Polish, derived from the word piąty
Habitational name for a person from towns named Piotrów
, all derived from the given name Piotr
Nickname for a bald person, from Slovene pleša
meaning "bald patch"
Means "one who sits behind"
in Czech, an equivalent to Zahradník
mainly used in the region of Moravia.
Means "Pole, person from Poland"
Derived from Czech polo
"one half" and lán
, a medieval Czech measure of land (approximately 18 hectares). The name denoted someone who owned this much land.
Nickname for a person in a hurry, from Czech pospíšit "hurry"
Means "walk, wander, stroll"
in Czech. This was an occupational name for a travelling tradesman.
Derived from the medieval status name purkrabí
. It is derived from German Burggraf
meaning "castle count".
From Russian путь (put)
meaning "road, path"
. This surname is borne by the Russian president Vladimir Putin (1952-).
From Russian распутье (rasputye)
. A famous bearer was the Russian mystic Grigoriy Rasputin (1869-1916).
Means "son of Roman"
. This was the surname of the last dynasty of Russian tsars.
Indicated a person who lived near the Rudawa, a river in Poland.
Ryba Czech, Polish
in Czech and Slovak, an occupational name for a fisher.
in Czech, from ryba
Denoted someone who lived in Sadowo, Sadowice or other places beginning with Polish sad
Occupational name derived from Czech švec
meaning "shoemaker, cobbler"
Patronymic from the given name Sienko
, an old diminutive of Szymon
. This was the surname of the Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916).
Means "fine sieve"
in Polish, a diminutive of the Polish word sito
in Czech, indicating that the original bearer lived near a prominent rock.
Skalický Czech, Slovak
Indicated the original bearer came from a place named Skalice
in the Czech Republic or Slovakia, derived from the Slavic root skala
Originally a name for a person from Silesia
, a historical region that is nowadays split between Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Occupational name for a locksmith, from Polish ślusarz
, of Germanic origin.
Derived from Russian смирный (smirny)
meaning "quiet, peaceful, timid". This is one of the most common surnames in Russia.
Smolak Polish, Czech
Occupational name for a distiller of pitch, derived from the Slavic word smola
meaning "pitch, resin"
Habitational name for a person from Sniegow, Sniegowo or other places with a name derived from Polish śnieg
Sobol Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish
Occupational name for a fur trader, from the Slavic word soboli
meaning "sable, marten"
. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Sokol Czech, Slovak, Jewish
From Czech and Slovak sokol
, a nickname or an occupational name for a falconer. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Usually refers to the city of Sokołów Podlaski in Poland. It may sometimes be derived from Polish sokół
From Czech suk
meaning "tree knot"
. This could either be a topographic name or a nickname for a stubborn person.
From a diminutive of Polish sowa
From a nickname derived from Polish stary "old"
Occupational name from Polish stolarz
meaning "joiner, maker of furniture"
Struna Slovene, Czech
From Slavic struna
meaning "string, cord"
, possibly denoting a maker of rope.
in Czech. This was a nickname for a thin person.
in Czech. This was a medieval name for a freeman, someone who was not a serf.
Derived from Polish Szwed
meaning "Swede, person from Sweden"
From Bosnian terzija
, ultimately of Persian origin.
in Czech, ultimately from the Slavic word tesla
From a nickname meaning "cheerful"
in Russian (ultimately from German), referring to a person who worked at a vineyard or lived near one.