BIEBER German, Jewish
From Middle High German biber
meaning "beaver", possibly a nickname for a hard worker.
Yiddish ornamental surname meaning "flower stone" in German.
Means "priest" from Hebrew כֹּהֵן (kohen)
. It originally denoted one of the priestly tribe of Levi.
FELD German, Jewish
Means "field" in German. The name was originally given to someone who lived on land cleared of forest.
FREUD German, Jewish
Means "joy" in German, a nickname for a cheerful person. A famous bearer was the psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).
Anglicized form of German Grünspan
meaning "verdigris". Verdigris is the green-blue substance that forms on copper.
GRÜNBERG German, Jewish
From German grün
"green" and Berg
"mountain". This name indicated a person who lived on or near a forest-covered mountain.
HABER German, Jewish
Derived from Middle High German haber
"oats". This was an occupational name for one who grew or sold oats.
HERSCHEL German, Yiddish
Diminutive form of HIRSCH (1)
or HIRSCH (2)
. A famous bearer was the British astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822), as well as his sister Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) and son John Herschel (1792-1871), also noted scientists.
HOROWITZ German, Jewish
From the German name for Horovice
, a town in the Central Bohemian Region of the Czech Republic.
JORDAN (2) Jewish
Derived from the name of the Jordan river, which is from Hebrew יָרַד (yarad)
meaning "descend" or "flow down".
KLEID German, Jewish
Occupational name for a tailor, from German Kleid
meaning "garment, clothing".
KLEIN German, Dutch, Jewish
Means "small, little" from German klein
or Yiddish kleyn
. A famous bearer of this name is clothes designer Calvin Klein (1942-).
Occupational name meaning "tailor" (from Polish krawiec
). A famous bearer is singer Lenny Kravitz (1964-).
MATOS Portuguese, Jewish
Variant of MATA
. Matos is also a name adopted by Jews of Portuguese and Spanish background. In 1589, Francisco Rodrigues de Matos was accused of being a Rabbi and convicted by the Inquisition, but it is doubtful that he was, in fact, a Rabbi.
MENCHER Polish, Jewish
Occupational surname for a miller or flour dealer (derived from Polish maczarz
MENDEL Jewish, German
Derived from the given name MENDEL
. A famous bearer was Gregor Mendel (1822-1884), a Czech monk and scientist who did experiments in genetics.
NUSSBAUM German, Jewish
Means "nut tree" from the Germanic words nuß
meaning "nut" and baum
PASTERNAK Polish, Ukrainian, Russian, Yiddish
Means "parsnip" in various Slavic languages, ultimately from Latin pastinaca
. A famous bearer was Boris Pasternak (1890-1960), author of 'Doctor Zhivago'.
PENZIG German, Yiddish
Denoted a person who came from Penzig, the German name for Pieńsk, a town in southwest Poland. Pieńsk
is derived from Polish pień
meaning "tree stump" or "tree trunk".
PRINZ German, Jewish
Means "prince", used as an ornamental surname by Jews or as a nickname for someone who acted in a princely manner.
Ornamental name from German Reis
meaning "twig, branch".
REUTER (1) German, Jewish
Means "dweller in a clearing" or "clearer of woodland" from Middle High German riute
ROSE (1) English, French, German, Scottish, Jewish
Means "rose" from the Middle English, Old French and Middle High German rose
. All denote a person of a rosy complexion or a person who lived in an area abundant with roses. It is also found derived from the Yiddish royz
, which always referred to the flower.
ROTH German, Jewish
From Middle High German rot
meaning "red". It was originally a nickname for a person with red hair.
ROTHSCHILD German, Jewish
Means "red shield, sign" from German rot
"red" and German or Yiddish s(c)hild
"sign, shield". The surname originally came from a family who took their name from a house with a red shield or sign on it. It has since been adopted by unrelated Jews.
SCHEINBERG German, Jewish
Means "lovely, beautiful mountain" from German schön
"fine, beautiful" and berg
SCHENCK German, Dutch, Jewish
From Middle High German, Middle Dutch schenke
meaning "wine server" (from Old High German scenken
"to pour out"). As a German name it also denoted a tavernkeeper.
SCHINDLER German, Jewish
Means "shingler, roof tiler". A famous bearer was Oskar Schindler (1908-1974), who saved over a thousand Polish Jews during World War II.
SCHREIER German, Jewish
German and Yiddish word meaning "screamer, shrieker, crier", perhaps an occupational name for a town crier. There are two main branches of people with the name: Lutherans from Bavaria, and Ashkenazi Jews from the area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire formerly known as Galicia, which is today in southwestern Ukraine.
SCHWARZ German, Jewish
From Middle High German swarz
meaning "black". It originally described a person with black hair or a dark complexion.
SEGAL (1) Jewish
Acronym of the Hebrew phrase SeGan Levia
meaning "second rank Levite".
Ornamental surname meaning "sapphire" from Yiddish shafir
Ornamental surname meaning "beautiful, handsome" from German schön
SHEINFELD German, Jewish
Means "lovely, beautiful field" from German schön
"fine, beautiful" and feld
SILVERSTEIN German, Jewish
Means "silver stone" from German Silber
. It was adopted when Jews in Europe were compelled to take surnames in the early part of the 19th century.
SISKIN German, Jewish
Means "sweet child" from the words suess
meaning "sweet" and kind
SITZ (1) German, Jewish
Derived from a given name beginning with the Germanic element sigi
SOBOL Polish, Jewish
Derived from either Polish sobol
meaning "marten" or Old High German zobel
SOKOL Czech, Jewish
From Czech sokol
meaning "falcon", a nickname or an occupational name for a falconer. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
STEIN German, Jewish
From the Old High German word stein
meaning "stone". It is common in German-Jewish names like Bernstein and Orenstein.
Ornamental Jewish name derived from German Wald
meaning "forest" and Vogel
From Middle High German walch
meaning "foreigner (from a Romance country)".
WIRTH German, Jewish
Occupational name for an innkeeper, derived from German wirt
Occupational name for a silversmith from Yiddish zilber
"silver" and schlag
ZIMMERMANN German, Jewish
From the German word for "carpenter", derived from Middle High German zimber
"timber, wood" and mann
From Middle High German zingel
"defensive wall". This name was originally applied to a person who lived near the outermost wall of a castle.