FOREST English, French
Originally belonged to a person who lived near or in a forest. It was probably originally derived, via Old French forest
, from Latin forestam (silva)
meaning "outer (wood)".
Name for someone who lived near ferns, from Old High German farn
Derived from Old High German forst
"forest". Probably unrelated to the Old French word forest
, which was derived from Latin, Old High German forst
was derived from foraha
meaning "fir tree".
Derived from Old French fort
"stronghold", indicating a person who lived near or worked at such a place.
Occupational name for a baker, from French fourneau
From a nickname which indicated a person who came from France. It is typical of the area around Naples.
Means "free" in German, probably referring to someone outside the feudal system.
FREUD German, Jewish
Means "joy" in German, a nickname for a cheerful person. A famous bearer was the psychologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939).
From Middle High German vriunt
, modern German Freund
From a nickname derived from Middle High German vrom
meaning "noble, honourable".
FROST English, German
From Old English and Old High German meaning "frost", a nickname for a person who had a cold personality or a white beard.
From Old High German fuhs
meaning "fox". It was originally a nickname for a person with red hair.
Derived from Middle High German vuorman
FURLAN Italian, Slovene
From the name of the Italian region of Friuli
, in the northeast of Italy, which is derived from the name of the Roman town of Forum Iulii meaning "forum of Julius".
From a nickname meaning "(sovereign) prince" in German. The word fürst
itself is derived from Old High German furisto
Occupational name for someone who made or sold forks, from Old High German gabala
GAGE French, English
Occupational name derived either from Old French jauge
"measure" (a name for an assayer) or gage
"pledge, payment" (a name for a moneylender). Both words were ultimately of Frankish origin.
Derived from Old French gagnier
meaning "to farm, to cultivate".
Derived from old French gagnon
"guard dog". The name most likely originated as a nickname for an aggressive or cruel person.
GALLO Italian, Spanish
Means "rooster", ultimately from Latin gallus
. This was a nickname for a proud person.
Probably from the feminine medieval given name Allegranza or Alleganza, a derivative of ALLEGRA
. It comes from northern Lombardy.
Originally denoted one from the region of Garfagnana in Tuscany, Italy, near the historical city of Lucca.
From a nickname, from a southern variant of the Italian word garofano
Name for someone who lived on a street in a city, from German gasse
Means "cat" in Italian, originally a nickname for an agile person.
Derived from a short form of Germanic names starting with the element ger
Means "vulture" in German, a nickname for a greedy person.
Means "fiddle player" in German, derived from Old High German giga
Occupational name for a goat herder, from southern German Geiss
meaning "goat" and the suffix ler
signifying an occupation.
Means "tanner, leather dresser" in German, derived from Old High German garawen
meaning "to prepare".
Occupational name for a barley farmer, derived from Old High German gersta
From the old Italian given name Bonagiunta
(derived from bono
"good" and aggiunto
GLASS English, German
From Old English glæs
or Old High German glas
meaning "glass". This was an occupational name for a glass blower or glazier.
Derived from Middle High German glocke
"bell". It may have referred to a person who worked at or lived close to a bell tower.
Derived from the given name Göbel
, a diminutive of the Old German name Godebert
, which is derived from god
"God" and beraht
From the German noble title Graf
meaning "count", ultimately from Greek γραφευς (grapheus)
Originally denoted a person from Gran, the German name for Esztergom, a city in northern Hungary.
GRANGER English, French
Means "farm bailiff" from Old French grangier
, ultimately from Latin granum
meaning "grain". It is borne in the Harry Potter novels by Harry's friend Hermione Granger.
From an Italian nickname meaning "cricket", perhaps given originally to a cheerful person (the cricket is associated with cheerfulness).
From the given name GRIMALDO
. It is the surname of the royal family of Monaco, which came from Genoa.
From the Tuscan word gronchio
meaning "numb, bent". This is an Italian regional surname typical of Tuscany. A famous bearer was the Italian president Giovanni Gronchi (1887-1978).
Means "thick, fat, big" in French, from Late Latin grossus
, possibly of Germanic origin.
From Old High German groz
meaning "tall, big".
GRÜNBERG German, Jewish
From German grün
"green" and Berg
"mountain". This name indicated a person who lived on or near a forest-covered mountain.
Means "green forest" from German grün
"green" and Wald
Derived from Middle High German guot
meaning "good" and muot
meaning "mind, spirit". It was a nickname for an optimistic person.
From a Sicilian nickname meaning "sad". It was name of the famous Italian painter Renato Guttuso (born 1912).
HABER German, Jewish
Occupational name for one who grew or sold oats, derived from Old High German habaro
"oat". As a Jewish surname it is ornamental.
Occupational name for a dealer in oats, derived from Old High German habaro
"oat" and korn
Occupational name for a potter, derived from Old High German havan
From a nickname for a proud or pugnacious person, from Old High German hano
meaning "rooster, cock".
HARDY English, French
From Old French and Middle English hardi
meaning "bold, daring", of Germanic origin.
From Middle High German and Middle Low German hase
meaning "hare, rabbit". This was a nickname for a person who was quick or timid.
From a northern German place name meaning "rabbit field", from Old Saxon haso
"hare" and kamp
"field" (from Latin campus
Derived from Middle High German houwen
"to chop", referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Derived from Middle High German houwen
"to chop" and man
"man", referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Name for someone who lived in a house with no land, derived rom Old High German word hus
HERSCHEL German, Jewish
Diminutive form of HIRSCH (1)
or HIRSCH (2)
. A famous bearer was the British-German astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822), as well as his sister Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) and son John Herschel (1792-1871), also noted scientists.
Derived from Middle High German herze
meaning "heart", a nickname for a big-hearted person.
From a German title meaning "duke", a nickname for a person who either acted like a duke or worked in a duke's household.
HIRSCH (1) German
Means "deer, hart" in German. This was a nickname for a person who resembled a deer in some way, or who raised or hunted deer.
Occupational name for a farmer, from German Hof
"farm", from Old High German hof
"house, estate, courtyard".
Means "master of the household", from Old High German hof
"house, estate, courtyard" and meistar
"master" (from Latin magister
Occupational name for a forester's helper, from Old High German holz
"wood" and kneht
Derived from Old High German holz
"wood" and man
"man", a name for someone who lived close to a wood or worked with wood.
HORN English, German, Norwegian, Danish
From the Germanic word horn
meaning "horn". This was an occupational name for one who carved objects out of horn or who played a horn, or a person who lived near a horn-shaped geographical feature, such as a mountain or a bend in a river.
Occupational name for a farmer, derived from Old High German huoba
"plot of land, farm".
HUMMEL (2) German, Dutch
Nickname for a busy person, from Middle Low German and Middle Dutch hommel
, Middle High German hummel
, all meaning "bee".
From the name of the town of Ingersleben, Germany, which meant "Inge's village".
Means "hunter" in German, from Old High German jagon
meaning "to hunt".
Either from the given name JANVIER
or the French word janvier
meaning "January", perhaps indicating a person who was baptized in that month.
From the name of a village in western Germany, itself derived from the name of the Jölle, a small river, combined with Low German beck
Means "young" in German, from Middle High German junc
From a nickname derived from German kahl
From Middle High German keiser
meaning "emperor", originally a nickname applied to someone who acted kingly. The title ultimately derives from the Roman name CAESAR
Occupational name meaning "calf (animal)" in German.
Occupational name for a butcher who dealt in veal, from German kalb
meaning "calf" and fleisch
KAPPEL German, Dutch
Name for a person who lived near or worked at a chapel, ultimately from Late Latin cappella
, a diminutive of cappa
"cape", arising from the holy relic of the torn cape of Saint Martin
, which was kept in small churches.
Means "cabinet maker", derived from Middle High German kaste
From the name of the town of Kaub in Germany.
Means "wedge shaped" in German. It was used to denote a person who owned a wedge-shaped piece of land.
Means "cellar" in German, an occupational name for one in charge of the food and drink.
Derived from Old High German kerno
"seed", an occupational name for one who sold or planted seeds.
KIEFER (2) German
Occupational name for a barrel maker, derived from Old High German kuofa
Derived from Middle High German kirchenaere
Occupational name meaning "chest maker, cabinetmaker" from Middle High German kiste
KLEIN German, Dutch, Jewish
Means "small, little" from German klein
or Yiddish kleyn
. A famous bearer of this name is clothes designer Calvin Klein (1942-).
Derived from German Klausner
, Middle High German klosenære
Occupational name for a shoemaker, derived from Low German knif
meaning "shoemaker's knife".
Originally a nickname for a noisy or disruptive person, derived from Old German knellen
"to make noise, to cause a disturbance".
From German Knochen
"bone" and Mus
"sauce". It probably referred to someone who worked in the butcher trade.
Means "button" in German, originally belonging to a button maker or button seller.
Derived from Middle High German kol
From Middle High German koler
meaning "charcoal burner" or "charcoal seller".
From Middle High German kolbe
Means "shopkeeper, merchant" in German, derived from Old High German kram
meaning "tent, trading post".
KRANZ German, Jewish
Derived from Old High German kranz
meaning "wreath", an occupational name for a maker of wreaths or an ornamental Jewish name.
From Middle High German krus
meaning "curly", originally a nickname for a person with curly hair.
Means "crab" in German, perhaps a nickname for a person with a crab-like walk.
KRON German, Swedish
From German Krone
and Swedish krona
meaning "crown" (from Latin corona
), perhaps a nickname for one who worked in a royal household.
Nickname for a crippled person or someone who walked with a cane, from Middle High German krücke
KRÜGER (1) German
In northern Germany an occupational name for a tavern keeper, derived from Middle Low German kroch
KRÜGER (2) German
In southern Germany an occupational name for a potter, derived from Middle High German kruoc
meaning "jug, pot".
Occupational surname for a baker who made small cakes or cookies, derived from Middle High German kuoche
Occupational name for a maker of distaffs, from Middle High German kunkel
"distaff, spindle", of Latin origin.
Means "short" in German, ultimately from Latin curtus
Originally indicated a person from the town of Abriola in southern Italy.
Means "chance, luck" in French, a nickname for a lucky person.
Means "the chapel" in French, most likely used to denote a person who lived by a church or a chapel.
Occupational name for a greengrocer, meaning "vegetables" in southern Italian dialects, ultimately from Greek λαχανον (lachanon)
From a nickname derived from Ligurian lagö
, referring to a type of lizard, the European green lizard. This little reptile is respected because it supposedly protects against vipers.
Occupational name meaning "sentry, sentinel" in Italian, also a locative name referring to a person who lived near a watchtower. Fiorello Laguardia (1882-1947) was the first mayor of New York of Italian origin.
Derived from the name place Lama
, common in Italy.
LAMAR French, English
Originally from a place name in Normandy, derived from Old French la mare
meaning "the pool".
From the name of the village of Lamon near the city of Belluno in Veneto, Italy.
LANDAU German, Jewish
Derived from the town of Landau in the Palatinate region of Germany, of Old High German origin meaning "land valley".
LANE (2) French
Derived from a French word meaning "wool", designating one who worked in the wool trade.