From Dutch aarden
meaning "clay, stone, earth". It probably denoted a person who worked with those materials.
Patronymic name derived from the Turkish word aba
"coat". It may have originally denoted the children of a tailor.
From the name of a type of leather-soled shoe or sandal made on the Balearic Islands. It originally indicated a person who made or sold this item.
Indicated a person who lived near an abbey or worked in an abbey, from Middle English abbeye
Means "ploughman", derived from Middle English aker
"field" and man
Derived from Hungarian alma
meaning "apple", perhaps originally referring to a person who harvested or sold apples.
Occupational name for one who practiced archery, from Latin arcus
"bow" (via Old French).
Means "crossbow maker" from German armbrust
"crossbow". The word armbrust
was originally from Latin arcuballista
meaning "bow ballista", but was modified under the influence of German arm
"arm" and brust
Means "doctor, physician" in German, ultimately from Latin archiater
Sicilian name, derived from Greek dialects of southern Italy. It is from Greek ψαρας (psaras)
From Latin balnea
"bath", referring to a person who worked as a bath house attendant.
From Middle English baili
meaning "bailiff", which comes via Old French from Latin baiulus
Occupational name meaning "baker", derived from Middle English bakere
Occupational name for a flag carrier, derived from Old French baniere
meaning "banner", ultimately of Germanic origin.
From Norman French banastre
meaning "basket". This was originally a name for a maker of baskets.
From Middle English bark
meaning "to tan". This was an occupational name for a leather tanner.
Denoted a person who worked or lived in a barn. The word barn
is derived from Old English bere
"barley" and ærn
From the title barone
"baron", derived via Latin from Germanic baro
"man, warrior, servant".
BARROS Portuguese, Spanish
From the Portuguese and Spanish word barro
meaning "clay, mud". This could either be an occupational name for a person who worked with clay or mud such as a builder or artisan, or a topographic name for someone living near clay or mud.
Meaning uncertain, possibly derived from the Germanic word baro
"man, warrior, servant".
From Old High German bur
meaning "peasant, farmer".
BECK (4) English
From Old English becca
meaning "pickaxe", an occupational surname.
Derived from Middle High German becker
BELL (1) English
From Middle English belle
meaning "bell". It originated as a nickname for a person who lived near the town bell, or who had a job as a bell-ringer.
Occupational name for a tanner of hides, derived from Middle High German belz
From Middle High German biutel
meaning "bag", originally belonging to a person who made or sold bags.
Means "drinking glasses" in Italian, referring originally to a person who made or sold them.
Derived from German bier
"beer" and mann
"man". The name may have referred to a brewer or a tavern owner.
Occupational name for someone who worked with tin or sheet metal, from German blech
Occupational name for a worker of lead, derived from German blei
Possibly an adaptation of French beurre fin
meaning "good butter".
Occupational name for a peasant farmer, from Middle English bonde
Derived from Hungarian bor
"wine". Originally it could have indicated someone who made or sold wine.
Occupational name for an archer, derived from Middle English bowe
, Old English boga
Means "brass worker", derived from Old English bræs
Referred to a person who cleared land, from Old French briser
"to cut" and bois
Means "bread baker" from Middle High German brot
"bread" and becke
BUCKLEY (2) Irish
From Irish Ó Buachalla
meaning "descendant of Buachaill", a nickname meaning "cowherd, servant".
Occupational name for a butcher, derived from Old French bouchier
BUTLER English, Irish
Occupational name derived from Norman French butiller
"wine steward", ultimately from Late Latin butticula
"bottle". A famous bearer of this surname is the fictional character Rhett Butler, created by Margaret Mitchell for her novel 'Gone with the Wind' (1936).
Occupational name from Sicilian càjitu
"official, leader", ultimately from Arabic قاضي (qadi)
CAMPANA Italian, Spanish
Occupational name from Late Latin campana
meaning "bell", ultimately derived from the Italian region of Campania, where bells were produced.
From the ecclesiastical usage of canon
, referring to a church official or servant who worked in a clergy house.
CAPELLO (1) Italian
From Late Latin cappa
meaning "cloak, cape, hood". This was a name for one who made or wore cloaks.
Occupational name meaning "captain" in Italian, ultimately from Latin caput
From the occupation, derived from Middle English carpentier
(ultimately from Latin carpentarius
meaning "carriage maker").
Occupational name for a person who operated a cart to transport goods, from Norman French caretier
. A famous bearer is the former American president Jimmy Carter (1924-).
Occupational surname for a carver, from Middle English kerve
Occupational name for one who made leggings, derived from Old French chausse
Means "horse" in Italian, an occupational name for a horseman.
Occupational name for an administrator, a chancellor, from Norman French chancelier
From a diminutive of the Old French word chape
meaning "cloak, hood". The name referred to a person who made, sold or often wore cloaks.
Occupational name for a hunter, from Middle English chase
From a diminutive of chèvre
meaning "goat", indicating a person who cultivated goats.
Derived from Czech chmel
"hops", referring to a person who grew hops, a plant used in brewing beer.
Means simply "clay", originally referring to a person who lived near or worked with of clay.
Derived from French clou
meaning "nail", referring to someone who made or sold nails.
From the Portuguese word for "rabbit", either a nickname or an occupational name referring to a hunter or seller of rabbits.
From Italian cuoio
meaning "leather", ultimately from Latin corium
. This was an occupational surname for a leather worker or tanner.
From Romanian cojoc
meaning "sheepskin coat". This was an occupational name for a maker of these coats.
Either from Italian colomba
"dove" indicating a dove keeper, or from the given name COLOMBO
, which is derived from the same word. This was the Italian surname of the 15th-century explorer Christopher Columbus.
Occupational name for a keeper of horses, derived from Middle English colt
From Old French conestable
, ultimately from Latin comes stabuli
meaning "officer of the stable".
Derived from Old English coc
meaning "cook", ultimately from Latin coquus
. It was an occupational name for a cook, a man who sold cooked meats, or a keeper of an eating house.
Derived from Old French cornet
meaning "horn", referring to one who worked as a horn blower.
Derived from Middle English cotter
meaning "cottager", referring to a small tenant farmer.
From Middle English coupe
meaning "barrel", a name for a barrel maker or cooper.
Occupational name derived from Middle English croppe
"crop", referring to a fruit picker or a crop reaper.
DEAN (2) English
Occupational surname meaning "dean", referring to a person who either was a dean or worked for one. It is from Middle English deen
(ultimately from Latin decanus
meaning "chief of ten").
Means "iron" in Turkish, originally referring to an ironworker.
Derived from Hungarian dob
meaning "drum". Originally the name was given to someone who played drums or made them.
Originally denoted someone who was a doctor, ultimately from Latin doctor
Occupational name for a maker or seller of woolen cloth, from Anglo-Norman French draper
(Old French drapier
, an agent derivative of drap
Means "a turner" from Middle High German drehen
"to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
Derived from Middle High German dreschen
"to thresh". A thresher was a person who separated the grains from a cereal plant by beating it.
Means "turner" from Middle High German dreseler
, an agent derivative of drehen
"to turn". A turner was a person who used a lathe to create small objects from wood or bone.
From the noble title, which was originally from Latin dux
"leader". It was a nickname for a person who behaved like a duke, or who worked in a duke's household.
Indicated a person who worked or lived at a dye-house, which is a place where dyeing was done.
Occupational name for a cloth dyer, from Old English deah
South German occupational name for a plowman or farmer, derived from German eggen
"to harrow, to plow".
Means "cartwright", related to Old High German ahsa
Occupational name for a tax collector, from Middle English ferme
"rent, revenue, provision", from Medieval Latin firma
, ultimately from Old English feorm
. This word did not acquire its modern meaning until the 17th century.
, a German carnival (Fastnacht
meaning "eve of the beginning of the fast", or the time before Lent) celebrated in Austria and Bavaria, and bauer
Means "land agent, bailiff, steward, farmer" in Italian.
Occupational name meaning "mower" in French, ultimately from Latin falx
meaning "sickle, scythe".
FERRO Italian, Portuguese
Means "iron", ultimately from Latin ferrum
. This was an occupational name for one who worked with iron.
Derived from Italian fiscella
, which was a basket used to conserve cheese. The name was probably used to denote a person who made cheese.
Occupational name for a fletcher, someone who attached feathers to the shaft of an arrow. It is derived from Old French fleche
Denoted a keeper or one in charge of a forest, or one who has charge of growing timber in a forest (see FOREST
Derived from Middle High German vuorman
Occupational name for a fuller, a person who thickened and cleaned coarse cloth by pounding it. It is derived via Middle English from Latin fullo
Derived from Old French gagnier
meaning "to farm, to cultivate".
Occupational surname for one who was a gardener, from Old French jardin
meaning "garden" (of Frankish origin).
GARNER (1) English
From Old French gernier
meaning "granary", a derivative of Latin granum
meaning "grain". This name could refer to a person who worked at a granary or lived near one.
Means "fiddle player" in German, derived from Old High German giga
Occupational name for a goat herder, from southern German Geiss
meaning "goat" and the suffix ler
signifying an occupation.
Means "tanner, leather dresser" in German, derived from Old High German garawen
meaning "to prepare".
Means "hackle, hatchel" in Hungarian (a hackle is a tool used to comb out fibers).
Means "glass worker, glazier", from Old English glæs
Derived from Middle High German glocke
"bell". It may have referred to a person who worked at or lived close to a bell tower.
Occupational name for a person who made or sold gloves, from Middle English glovere
Derived from Breton or Cornish goff
meaning "smith", and referred to a metalworker.
Occupational name for a steward, derived from Middle English greyve
, related to the German title Graf
Occupational name meaning "steward, farm manager" in Middle English, related to the German title Graf
Means "warrior" in Spanish, an occupational name for a soldier. It is derived from Late Latin werra
"war", of Germanic origin.
Originally belonged to a person who played the harp or who made harps.
Derived from Middle High German houwen
"to chop", referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Derived from Middle High German houwen
"to chop" and man
"man", referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Occupational name for a person who protected an enclosed forest, from Old English hæg
"enclosure, fence" and weard
From Middle English hed
meaning "head", from Old English heafod
. It may have referred to a person who had a peculiar head, who lived near the head of a river or valley, or who served as the village headman.
From Dutch heer
"lord, master", a nickname for a person who acted like a lord or who worked for a lord.
From a German title meaning "duke", a nickname for a person who either acted like a duke or worked in a duke's household.
HIRSCH (1) German
Means "deer, hart" in German. This was a nickname for a person who resembled a deer in some way, or who raised or hunted deer.
Occupational name meaning "pig herder", from Old English hogg
"hog" and hierde
Derived from Old High German holz
"wood" and man
"man", a name for someone who lived close to a wood or worked with wood.
Occupational name for someone who put the metal hoops around wooden barrels.
Occupational name for an acrobat or a nickname for someone who was nervous or restless. A famous bearer was the American actor Dennis Hopper (1936-2010).
HORN English, German, Norwegian, Danish
From the Germanic word horn
meaning "horn". This was an occupational name for one who carved objects out of horn or who played a horn, or a person who lived near a horn-shaped geographical feature, such as a mountain or a bend in a river.
HOWARD (2) English
Occupational name meaning "ewe herder", from Old English eowu
"ewe" and hierde
Means "count" in Czech, perhaps used to denote someone who worked for a count or acted like a count.
Means "pear" in Czech, most likely used to denote a person who grew or sold pears.
HUNTER English, Scottish
Occupational name that referred to someone who hunted for a living, from Old English hunta
Means "hunter" in German, from Old High German jagon
meaning "to hunt".
Occupational name for a carpenter (that is, a person who joins wood together to make furniture).
From the Dutch title jonkheer
meaning "young lord". It was originally a medieval noble designation (not an actual title) for a young nobleman.
From Polish kamień
meaning "stone", a name for a stonecutter or for one who lived at a place with this name.
From Hungarian kard
meaning "sword". It could have been applied to soldiers, sword makers, or one with a pugnacious nature.
Derived from Turkish katır
meaning "mule", a name for a person who made transports by mule.
KAY (2) English
Derived from Old French kay
meaning "wharf, quay", indicating one who lived near or worked on a wharf.
Occupational name for a pig butcher, from Middle English killen
"to kill" and hog
"pig, swine, hog".
Derived from Old High German kerno
"seed", an occupational name for one who sold or planted seeds.
Occupational name for a person who worked in a kitchen (of a monastery for example), derived from Old English cycene
, ultimately from Latin coquina
Means "hammer" in Czech, a nickname for a blacksmith.
Occupational name for a tailor, from Old High German kleid
meaning "garment, clothing".
Occupational name for a shoemaker, derived from Low German knif
meaning "shoemaker's knife".
From Old English cniht
meaning "knight", a tenant serving as a mounted soldier.
From German Knochen
"bone" and Mus
"sauce". It probably referred to someone who worked in the butcher trade.
Means "button" in German, originally belonging to a button maker or button seller.
From Middle High German koler
meaning "charcoal burner" or "charcoal seller".
Means "wheelwright", a derivative of Czech kolo
From Slovene kopito
meaning "hoof", an occupational name for a shoer.
From Croatian koš
meaning "basket", originally indicating a person who made or sold baskets.
Derived from Hungarian koszorú
meaning "garland, wreath, girdle", a name for someone who made garlands.
Means "shopkeeper, merchant" in German, derived from Old High German kram
meaning "tent, trading post".
KRANZ German, Jewish
Derived from Old High German kranz
meaning "wreath", an occupational name for a maker of wreaths or an ornamental Jewish name.
Occupational name derived from Polish krawiec
Means "king" in Polish. The name referred to one who acted like a king or was connected in some way with a king's household.
Occupational surname for a baker who made small cakes or cookies, derived from Middle High German kuoche
Derived from the Hungarian word kuruc
, referring to rebels who fought against the Habsburgs in the late 17th to early 18th century.
Occupational name for a greengrocer, meaning "vegetables" in southern Italian dialects, ultimately from Greek λαχανον (lachanon)
Occupational name meaning "sentry, sentinel" in Italian, also a locative name referring to a person who lived near a watchtower. Fiorello Laguardia (1882-1947) was the first mayor of New York of Italian origin.
Patronymic name derived from Russian лагун (lagun)
meaning "water barrel". It was used to denote the descendants of a person who made water barrels.
LANE (2) French
Derived from a French word meaning "wool", designating one who worked in the wool trade.
Derived from Czech lán
, a measure of land equal to approximately 18 hectares. The name loosely translates as "farmer" and is considered a Moravian equivalent of Sedlák
Means "minstrel, bard, lutist" in Hungarian, from lant
Means "point (of a lance)" in French, possibly a nickname for a soldier.
Originally indicated a person who was a physician, from the medieval practice of using leeches to bleed people of ills.
From French écuyer
meaning "squire, shield-bearer".
From Middle High German lehenman
meaning "vassal, liege man".
Means "the mayor" in French. It was a title given to a town official, or else a nickname for someone who was pompous and officious.
Anglicized form of the Gaelic Mac an Fleisdeir
meaning "son of the arrow maker".
MACHADO Portuguese, Spanish
Denoted a person who made or used hatchets, derived from Spanish and Portuguese machado
"hatchet", both from Latin marculus
Means "marble" in Italian, possibly indicating a person who lived near a quarry or one who worked with marble.
Derived from Middle English mareschal
"marshal", ultimately from Germanic marah
"horse" and scalc
"servant". It originally referred to someone who took care of horses.
MARTEL (2) French, English
Nickname for a smith, derived from Old French martel
"hammer", ultimately from Late Latin martellus
Referred to one who churned or sold butter or buttermilk, derived from Czech máslo
Occupational name for a stoneworker or layer of bricks, from Old French masson
, ultimately of Germanic origin (akin to Old English macian
Occupational name meaning "mower, cutter of hay" in Old English.
From a nickname (perhaps occupational) meaning "maul, mallet" in Italian.
From Scottish Gaelic Mac an tSaoir
meaning "son of the carpenter".
METZ (1) German
Occupational name for maker of knives, from Middle High German metze
MEYER (1) German
From Middle High German meier
meaning "bailiff, administrator", derived from Latin maior
meaning "greater". Later it also denoted a tenant farmer. The spellings Meier
are more common in northern Germany while Maier
are more common in southern Germany.
Occupational surname referring to a person who owned or worked in a grain mill, from Middle English mille
Name for someone whose house was in a mill or who worked in a mill.
Originally given to one who lived near a mill or who worked in a mill, from Middle English mille
Means "mortar" in Polish. It probably referred to someone who worked with or sold mortar.
Referred to a shepherd or else someone who in some way resembled a sheep, derived from Norman French mouton
From Dutch offer
meaning "offering, donation", referring to a person who collected money in a church.
PAGE English, French
Occupational name meaning "servant, page". It is ultimately derived (via Old French and Italian) from Greek παιδιον (paidion)
meaning "little boy".
From Italian paladino
meaning "knight, defender", from Late Latin palatinus
meaning "palace officer".
PARK (2) English
From Middle English park
, from Latin parricus
, of Germanic origin. This was a name for someone who worked in or lived in a park.
Means "keeper of the park" in Middle English. It is an occupational name for a person who was a gamekeeper at a medieval park.
Originally denoted a son of a parson, a derivative of Latin persona
PECK (2) English
Occupational name for a maker of pecks (vessels used as peck measures), derived from Middle English pekke
Means "sheep" in Italian, an occupational name for a shepherd.
From Middle Dutch paender
meaning "brewer", derived from panne
meaning "pan, pot", ultimately from Latin patina
Means "fish" in Italian, referring either to a fisherman or to a person who resembled a fish in some way.
Originally given to a person who played on a pipe (a flute).
PLANK German, English
Means "plank", from Old French, itself from Late Latin planca
. This could have referred to a person who lived by a plank bridge over a stream, someone who was thin, or a carpenter.
Means "one who sits behind" in Czech, an equivalent to Zahradník
mainly used in the region of Moravia.
PORCHER English, French
Means "swineherd" from Old French and Middle English porchier
, from Latin porcus
Occupational name meaning "doorkeeper", ultimately from Old French porte
"door", from Latin porta
Occupational name for a potter, one who makes earthen vessels.
Occupational name, either for an apothecary, from Old French potecaire
, or a seller of stew, from Old French potagier
Derived from Old French poule
meaning "chicken". It was most likely used to denote a person who raised or sold poultry.
Means "walk, wander, stroll" in Czech. This was an occupational name for a travelling tradesman.
From Old French pourcel
"piglet", from Latin porcellus
, a derivative of porcus
"pig". This was a nickname or an occupational name for a swineherd.
Occupational name for a gunsmith or cannon maker, from Hungarian puska
meaning "gun" (from German, itself from Latin buxis
Occupational name for the fisherman in charge of the boat, from Italian rais
"captain", of Arabic origin. It is typical of Sicily and Sardinia.
Derived from Middle High German retich
, Middle Low German redik
meaning "radish", an occupational name for a grower or seller of radishes.
Means "judge" in German, from Middle High German rihtære
Occupational name meaning "poet", from Middle English rime
From Middle High German riter
meaning "rider, knight", a cognate of RYDER
From Old High German riuten
"to clear land" and bur
RYBA Czech, Polish
Means "fish" in Czech and Slovak, an occupational name for a fisher.
Means "fisher" in Czech, from ryba
Topographic name. It could be a misdivision of the Middle English phrases atter ye
meaning "at the island" or atter eye
meaning "at the river". In some cases it merely indicated a person who lived where rye was grown or worked with rye (from Old English ryge