From the name of a town in Calabria, Italy. It is possibly derived from Arabic (dating from the Arab raids of the 9th century) meaning "the fortress".
Referred to person who lived at the end of the road or the village, derived from Dutch an gen ent
meaning "at the end".
Originally denoted a person from Anholt in the Netherlands, which means "hold, rest" in Dutch (a place where people could rest for the night).
Denoted a person from the village of Anjum in the Netherlands. It possibly means "corner" in Dutch.
From Dutch aan 't veldink
meaning "next to the little field".
From the name of a city in the Netherlands, meaning "apple tree" in Dutch.
Indicated a person who lived by or at an apple garden, from Dutch appel
"apple" and hof
Indicated a person who was from a farm called Aperloo, probably a derivative of appel
From the name of various English towns, derived from Old English æppel
"apple" and Old Norse býr
From the name of several English towns, meaning "orchard" in Old English (a compound of æppel
"apple" and tun
Probably from an unidentified place name meaning "up tower" in Old English.
AQUINO Italian, Spanish
From the name of an Italian town near Rome, the home town of the 13th-century saint Thomas Aquinas. In Italy it is derived directly from the town's name. As a Spanish-language surname, it was sometimes bestowed by missionaries in honour of the saint as they evangelized in Spanish colonies.
Means "golden" in Hungarian. A famous bearer of the name was Hungarian poet János Arany (1817-1882).
Denoted a person hailing from one of the many areas that bear this name in Portugal, which is of unknown meaning.
Denoted a person from Araia in the Basque Country, Spain. It is of uncertain meaning.
Occupational name for one who practiced archery, from Latin arcus
"bow" (via Old French).
From the Romanian region of Ardeal, also called Transylvania. It is possibly derived from Hungarian erdő
Originally indicated a person from the town of Aretxabaleta in Spain. It means "oak trees" in Basque.
From various Spanish place names, which are derived from Spanish arena
Denoted a person from Arendonk, a town between in northern Belgium. It is derived from arend
"eagle" and donk
From a place name meaning "shelter, quiet place" in Cornish.
ARITZA Spanish, Basque
From Basque aritz
meaning "oak tree". This was a nickname of Iñigo, the first king of Pamplona, Spain (9th century).
Occupational name for a chest maker, from Middle English arc
meaning "chest, coffer" and wyrhta
meaning "maker, craftsman".
From Italian armato
meaning "armed, armoured, equipped".
Means "crossbow maker" from German armbrust
"crossbow". The word armbrust
was originally from Latin arcuballista
meaning "bow ballista", but was modified under the influence of German arm
"arm" and brust
Means "hermitage", indicating a person who lived near one, from Middle English ermite
"hermit" and stede
Means "strong arm" from Middle English. Tradition holds that the family is descended from Siward, an 11th-century Earl of Northumbria. Famous bearers of this name include the Americans Louis Armstrong (1901-1971), a jazz musician, and Neil Armstrong (1930-2012), an astronaut who was the first person to walk on the moon.
Means "son of Arnone" from the medieval name Arnone
, of uncertain origin.
From the name of a town in Cambridgeshire, originally meaning "Earna's settlement" in Old English (Earna
being a person's nickname meaning "eagle").
ARRIOLA Spanish, Basque
From Basque place names, themselves derived from Basque arri
"stone" and -ola
"place of, house".
From Norwegian å
meaning "river, stream", and rud
, an old word meaning "clearing".
Means "doctor, physician" in German, ultimately from Latin archiater
From Old English æsc
meaning "ash tree", indicating a person who lived near ash trees.
Denoted a person hailing from one of the many places in England which bear this name. The place name itself is derived from Old English æsc
"ash tree" and leah
From an English place name meaning "ash enclosure" in Old English.
Originally denoted a person from the Italian city of Assisi (called Asís
Denoted a person from Assel, Asselt or Hasselt, the name of communities in the Netherlands and Belgium. They derive from Germanic asc
"ash tree" and lauha
"woods on sandy soil", or hasal
From the name of a place called Assendorp, composed of essen
, meaning "ash tree village".
From the name of a region in Spain, formerly a medieval kingdom. It is possibly derived from Basque asta
"rock" and ur
Probably from Hatelji
, the name of a town in Serbia, which is of unknown meaning.
From Persian عطر ('atir)
meaning "fragrance, perfume", ultimately from Arabic. It probably denoted a seller of perfume.
Means "at the way", originally denoting someone who lived close to a road.
Means "dweller at the fortified town" from Middle English at
From German meaning "meadow by a river, wetland". There are many places with this name in Germany, Austria and Switzerland.
From a place name, possibly from a dialectal variation of Dutch over
meaning "over" combined with esch
meaning "ash tree".
From a place name meaning "the edge of camp" in Dutch.
AYERS (3) English
Indicated a person from the town of Ayr in Scotland. The town was named for the river which flows through it, itself derived from an Indo-European root meaning "water".
From the name of towns in Berwickshire and North Yorkshire. They are derived from Old English ea
"river" or eg
"island" combined with tun
"enclosure, yard, town".
Sicilian name, derived from Greek dialects of southern Italy. It is from Greek ψαρας (psaras)
From the name of the town of Baard
in the Netherlands, possibly derived from a given name which was a variant of BERT
From the name of a town in the Netherlands, possibly from Baard
, a variant of BERT
, and wijk
meaning "neighbourhood, district".
Indicated a person coming from the town of Beers in the Netherlands.
Indicated a person coming from the small town of Beers in Frisia.
Means "beard" in Dutch, originally describing a person who wore a beard.
Topographic name for someone who lived by a stream, from Middle High German bach
meaning "stream". This name was borne by members of the Bach musical family, notably the composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750).
BACHCHAN Indian, Hindi
From Hindi बच्चा (bachcha)
meaning "child", a word of Persian origin. This surname was adopted by the Indian poet Harivansh Rai Srivastava (1907-2003).
Denoted a person who lived near a stream, from German bach
"field" and mann
Originally referred to a farmer whose farm was beside a stream, from Middle High German bach
"stream" and meier
"steward, tenant farmer".
Means "bakery", an occupational name for a baker, from Old English bæchus
literally "bake house".
Derived from Old High German bad
"bath", most likely referring to a bath attendant.
Originally denoted a person from the Italian town of Baggio (now part of Milan). It is probably derived from Latin Badalocum
meaning "watch place".
From various English place names, all derived from Old English bagga
"bag, badger" combined with leah
From Latin balnea
"bath", referring to a person who worked as a bath house attendant.
From Middle High German bër
"bear" or ber
"boar". This was originally a nickname for a strong or brave person.
From Middle English baili
meaning "bailiff", which comes via Old French from Latin baiulus
BAINES (2) English
From a nickname derived from Old English ban
"bones", probably for a thin person.
Occupational name meaning "baker", derived from Middle English bakere
Means "bakery" from Dutch bak
"bake" and huis
"house", an occupational name for a baker.
Derived from the given name Baldinotto
, from the Latin name Baldinoctus
, a diminutive of BALDO
From any of the various places of this name, derived from Old English bean
meaning "bean" and croft
meaning "small enclosed field".
From the Latin name Bandinus
, a derivative of Bandus
, which is of unknown meaning.
From the name of the village of Bandoghat
combined with upadhaya
Originally indicated someone who lived near a hillside or a bank of land.
Occupational name for a flag carrier, derived from Old French baniere
meaning "banner", ultimately of Germanic origin.
From Norman French banastre
meaning "basket". This was originally a name for a maker of baskets.
From Middle English bark
meaning "to tan". This was an occupational name for a leather tanner.
Derived from a number of English place names which variously mean "barley hill", "barn hill", "boar clearing" or "barley clearing".