, a German carnival (Fastnacht
meaning "eve of the beginning of the fast", or the time before Lent) celebrated in Austria and Bavaria, and bauer
Means "land agent, bailiff, steward, farmer"
Occupational name meaning "mower"
in French, ultimately from Latin falx
meaning "sickle, scythe".
FAULKNER English, Scottish
Occupational name meaning "keeper of falcons"
, from Middle English and Scots faulcon
, from Late Latin falco
, of Germanic origin.
From Italian fava
referring to a type of broad bean.
Occupational name for a metalworker or smith, derived from Latin ferrarius
, a derivative of ferrum
FERRO Italian, Portuguese
, ultimately from Latin ferrum
. This was an occupational name for one who worked with iron.
Occupational name meaning "blacksmith"
in Old French, derived from Latin faber
Derived from Italian fiscella
, which was a basket used to conserve cheese. The name was probably used to denote a person who made cheese.
Occupational name for a fletcher, someone who attached feathers to the shaft of an arrow. It is derived from Old French fleche
Denoted a keeper or one in charge of a forest, or one who has charge of growing timber in a forest (see FOREST
Derived from Old French fort "stronghold"
, indicating a person who lived near or worked at such a place.
FOSTER (2) English
Occupational name for a scissor maker, derived from Old French forcetier
FOSTER (3) English
Occupational name for a maker of saddle trees, derived from Old French fustier
Occupational name for a baker, from French fourneau
Occupational name for a fowler or birdcatcher, ultimately derived from Old English fugol
Derived from Middle English frankelin
. It denoted a landowner of free but not noble birth, from Old French franc
Derived from Middle High German vuorman
Occupational name for a fuller, a person who thickened and cleaned coarse cloth by pounding it. It is derived via Middle English from Latin fullo
Occupational name for someone who made or sold forks, from Old High German gabala "fork"
GAGE French, English
Occupational name derived either from Old French jauge "measure"
(a name for an assayer) or gage "pledge, payment"
(a name for a moneylender). Both words were ultimately of Frankish origin.
Derived from Old French gagnier
meaning "to farm, to cultivate"
Occupational surname for one who was a gardener, from Old French jardin
meaning "garden" (of Frankish origin).
GARNER (1) English
From Old French gernier
, a derivative of Latin granum
meaning "grain". This name could refer to a person who worked at a granary or lived near one.
GARNETT (1) English
Occupational name referring to a person who made hinges, from Old French carne "hinge"
Means "fiddle player"
in German, derived from Old High German giga
Occupational name for a goat herder, from southern German Geiss
meaning "goat" and the suffix ler
signifying an occupation.
Means "tanner, leather dresser"
in German, derived from Old High German garawen
meaning "to prepare".
Means "hackle, hatchel"
in Hungarian (a hackle is a tool used to comb out fibers).
Occupational name for a barley farmer, derived from Old High German gersta "barley"
GLASS English, German
From Old English glæs
or Old High German glas
. This was an occupational name for a glass blower or glazier.
Means "glass worker, glazier"
, from Old English glæs
Derived from Middle High German glocke "bell"
. It may have referred to a person who worked at or lived close to a bell tower.
Occupational name for a person who made or sold gloves, from Middle English glovere
Derived from Breton or Cornish goff
, referring to a metalworker.
Derived from Polish gomółka
, a type of round cheese, ultimately from an old Polish word meaning "round".
From the German noble title Graf
, ultimately from Greek γραφευς (grapheus)
GRANGER English, French
Means "farm bailiff"
from Old French grangier
, ultimately from Latin granum
meaning "grain". It is borne in the Harry Potter novels by Harry's friend Hermione Granger.
Occupational name for a steward, derived from Middle English greyve
, related to the German title Graf
Occupational name meaning "steward, farm manager"
in Middle English, related to the German title Graf
in Spanish, an occupational name for a soldier. It is derived from Late Latin werra
"war", of Germanic origin.
Derived from either archaic Polish gwozd
Occupational name meaning "peddler"
HABER German, Jewish
Occupational name for one who grew or sold oats, derived from Old High German habaro "oat"
. As a Jewish surname it is ornamental.
Occupational name for a dealer in oats, derived from Old High German habaro
"oat" and korn
Occupational name for a potter, derived from Old High German havan "pot, vessel"
From various English place names meaning "high meadow"
in Old English.
Originally belonged to a person who played the harp or who made harps.
Derived from Middle High German houwen "to chop"
, referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Derived from Middle High German houwen
"to chop" and man
"man", referring to a butcher or woodchopper.
Occupational name for a person who protected an enclosed forest, from Old English hæg
"enclosure, fence" and weard
From Middle English hed
, from Old English heafod
. It may have referred to a person who had a peculiar head, who lived near the head of a river or valley, or who served as the village headman.
From Dutch heer "lord, master"
, a nickname for a person who acted like a lord or who worked for a lord.
HERSCHEL German, Jewish
Diminutive form of HIRSCH (1)
or HIRSCH (2)
. A famous bearer was the British-German astronomer William Herschel (1738-1822), as well as his sister Caroline Herschel (1750-1848) and son John Herschel (1792-1871), also noted scientists.
From a German title meaning "duke"
, a nickname for a person who either acted like a duke or worked in a duke's household.
Anglicized form of Irish Ó hÍcidhe
meaning "descendant of the healer"
HIRSCH (1) German
Means "deer, hart"
in German. This was a nickname for a person who resembled a deer in some way, or who raised or hunted deer.
Occupational name for a hat maker, from Dutch hoed
"hat" and maker
Occupational name for a farmer, from German Hof "farm"
, from Old High German hof
"house, estate, courtyard".
Means "master of the household"
, from Old High German hof
"house, estate, courtyard" and meistar
"master" (from Latin magister
Occupational name meaning "pig herder"
, from Old English hogg
"hog" and hierde
Occupational name for a forester's helper, from Old High German holz
"wood" and kneht
Derived from Old High German holz
"wood" and man
"man", a name for someone who lived close to a wood or worked with wood.
Occupational name for someone who put the metal hoops around wooden barrels.
Occupational name for an acrobat or a nickname for someone who was nervous or restless. A famous bearer was the American actor Dennis Hopper (1936-2010).
HORN English, German, Norwegian, Danish
From the Germanic word horn
. This was an occupational name for one who carved objects out of horn or who played a horn, or a person who lived near a horn-shaped geographical feature, such as a mountain or a bend in a river.
HOWARD (2) English
Occupational name meaning "ewe herder"
, from Old English eowu
"ewe" and hierde
in Czech, perhaps used to denote someone who worked for a count or acted like a count.
in Czech, most likely used to denote a person who grew or sold pears.
From Chinese 胡 (hú)
meaning "beard, whiskers, recklessly, wildly, barbarian"
Occupational name for a farmer, derived from Old High German huoba "plot of land, farm"
HUNTER English, Scottish
Occupational name that referred to someone who hunted for a living, from Old English hunta
in German, from Old High German jagon
meaning "to hunt".
From Czech jehla
, most likely borne by tailors in reference to their occupation.
Occupational name for a carpenter (that is, a person who joins wood together to make furniture).
From the Dutch title jonkheer
meaning "young lord"
. It was originally a medieval noble designation (not an actual title) for a young nobleman.
Occupational name meaning "calf (animal)"
Occupational name for a butcher who dealt in veal, from German kalb
meaning "calf" and fleisch
Occupational name meaning "merchant, shopkeeper"
in Hungarian, of German origin.
From Polish kamień
, a name for a stonecutter or for one who lived at a place with this name.
KAPPEL German, Dutch
Name for a person who lived near or worked at a chapel, ultimately from Late Latin cappella
, a diminutive of cappa
"cape", arising from the holy relic of the torn cape of Saint Martin
, which was kept in small churches.
From Hungarian kard
. It could have been applied to soldiers, sword makers, or one with a pugnacious nature.
Means "cabinet maker"
, derived from Middle High German kaste
Derived from Turkish katır
, a name for a person who made transports by mule.
KAY (2) English
Derived from Old French kay
meaning "wharf, quay"
, indicating one who lived near or worked on a wharf.
in German, an occupational name for one in charge of the food and drink.
Occupational name for a pig butcher, from Middle English killen
"to kill" and hog
"pig, swine, hog".
Occupational name for a maker of wheels, from Hungarian kerék
Derived from Old High German kerno "seed"
, an occupational name for one who sold or planted seeds.
KIEFER (2) German
Occupational name for a barrel maker, derived from Old High German kuofa
From the Irish Mac Giolla Phádraig
meaning "son of the servant of Saint Patrick"
From Old English cyning "king"
, originally a nickname for someone who either acted in a kingly manner or who worked for or was otherwise associated with a king.
Derived from Middle High German kirchenaere
Occupational name meaning "chest maker, cabinetmaker"
from Middle High German kiste
Occupational name for a person who worked in a kitchen (of a monastery for example), derived from Old English cycene
, ultimately from Latin coquina
in Czech, a nickname for a blacksmith.
Occupational name for a tailor, from Old High German kleid
meaning "garment, clothing"
Occupational name for a shoemaker, derived from Low German knif
meaning "shoemaker's knife"
From Old English cniht
, a tenant serving as a mounted soldier.
From German Knochen
"bone" and Mus
"sauce". It probably referred to someone who worked in the butcher trade.
in German, originally belonging to a button maker or button seller.
From Middle High German koler
meaning "charcoal burner"
or "charcoal seller"
, a derivative of Czech kolo
From Middle High German kolbe
From Slovene kopito
, an occupational name for a shoer.
From Croatian koš
, originally indicating a person who made or sold baskets.
Derived from Hungarian koszorú
meaning "garland, wreath, girdle"
, a name for someone who made garlands.
Means "male goat"
in Polish, probably used to denote a goatherd.
Patronymic from Russian козёл (kozyol)
meaning "male goat"
, probably used to denote a goatherd.
Means "shopkeeper, merchant"
in German, derived from Old High German kram
meaning "tent, trading post".
KRANZ German, Jewish
Derived from Old High German kranz
, an occupational name for a maker of wreaths or an ornamental Jewish name.
Occupational name derived from Polish krawiec
in Polish. The name referred to one who acted like a king or was connected in some way with a king's household.
KRÜGER (1) German
In northern Germany an occupational name for a tavern keeper, derived from Middle Low German kroch
KRÜGER (2) German
In southern Germany an occupational name for a potter, derived from Middle High German kruoc
meaning "jug, pot"
Occupational surname for a baker who made small cakes or cookies, derived from Middle High German kuoche "cake, pastry"
Possibly from Polish kum "godfather, friend"
or komięga "raft, barge"
From Turkish kundak
meaning "stock, wooden part of a rifle"
Occupational name for a maker of distaffs, from Middle High German kunkel "distaff, spindle"
, of Latin origin.
Derived from the Hungarian word kuruc
, referring to rebels who fought against the Habsburgs in the late 17th to early 18th century.
Occupational name for a greengrocer, meaning "vegetables"
in southern Italian dialects, ultimately from Greek λαχανον (lachanon)
Occupational name meaning "sentry, sentinel"
in Italian, also a locative name referring to a person who lived near a watchtower. Fiorello Laguardia (1882-1947) was the first mayor of New York of Italian origin.
Patronymic name derived from Russian лагун (lagun)
meaning "water barrel"
. It was used to denote the descendants of a person who made water barrels.
LANE (2) French
Derived from a French word meaning "wool"
, designating one who worked in the wool trade.
Derived from Czech lán
, a measure of land equal to approximately 18 hectares. The name loosely translates as "farmer" and is considered a Moravian equivalent of Sedlák
Means "minstrel, bard, lutist"
in Hungarian, from lant
Means "the point (of a lance)"
in French, possibly a nickname for a soldier.
Originally indicated a person who was a physician, from the medieval practice of using leeches to bleed people of ills.