Originally indicated that the bearer was from the English city of Lincoln, called Lindum Colonia
by the Romans, derived from Brythonic lindo
"lake, pool" and Latin colonia
"colony". A famous bearer was Abraham Lincoln (1809-1865), president of the United States during the American Civil War.
Means "castle" in Finnish. A famous namesake is Väinö Linna (1920-1992), Finnish author of 'The Unknown Soldier'.
Originally from place names meaning either "flax town" or "linden tree town" in Old English.
Originally from place names meaning "linden tree forest" in Old English.
Habitation name meaning derived from Celtic roots meaning "pool hollow". A famous bearer of this name is actor John Lithgow (1945-).
From Locatello, a town in Lombardy, northern Italy, near the city of Bergamo.
From a Scottish place name meaning "little hollow", derived from Gaelic lag
From various place names in the Netherlands, derived from Old Dutch loh
meaning "meadow, clearing".
Originally indicated someone who came from the Lombardy region of northern Italy, which was named for the Lombards, a Germanic tribe who invaded in the 6th century.
From the name of the capital city of the United Kingdom, the meaning of which is uncertain.
LOYOLA Spanish, Basque
From the name of a place name near the town of Azpeitia in the Basque Country of Spain, derived from Basque loi
meaning "mud". This was the birthplace of Saint Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556), the founder of Jesuits.
From Chinese 吕 (lǚ)
meaning "musical note" and also referring to the former state of Lu, which was situated in what is now Henan province.
From the name of towns in England called Lumb
, probably from Old English lum
LUND Danish, Swedish, Norwegian, English
Indicated a person who lived near a grove of trees, from Old Norse lundr
meaning "grove". There are towns in Sweden and Britain called Lund.
From an Italian form of Lusatia
, a region of eastern Germany.
Originally from a place name meaning "linden tree hill" in Old English.
Habitational name for someone who lived in places of this name in Scotland.
From the name of a town in Norfolk (King's Lynn), derived from Welsh llyn
LYON (1) English, French
Originally denoted a person from the city of Lyon in central France, originally Latin Lugdunum
, of Gaulish origin meaning "hill fort of LUGUS
". It could also denote a person from the small town of Lyons-la-Forêt in Normandy.
Denoted a person hailing from one of the numerous minor places of this name in Portugal. The first element in the place name may have been derived from the Celtic word magal
From Polish malina
meaning "raspberry", originally indicating a person who lived near a raspberry patch.
MANDEL German, Yiddish
Means "almond" in German, an occupational name for a grower or seller, or a topographic name for a person who lived near an almond tree. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Originally indicated a person from Manfredonia, Italy. The city was named for the 13th-century King Manfred
From the name of the city of Mantua in Lombardy, northern Italy (Mantova
From the name of a place near Lugo in northern Spain. A notable bearer is the former Argentinian soccer star Diego Maradona (1960-).
From the name of the Marche region in Italy, derived from Late Latin marca
meaning "borderland". It was the real surname of the American boxer Rocky Marciano (1923-1969), who was born Rocco Marchegiano.
Originally denoted a person who hailed from one of the various places in Britain called Marley
, ultimately meaning either "pleasant wood", "boundary wood" or "marten wood" in Old English. One of the main characters in Charles Dickens' 'A Christmas Carol' (1843) bears this surname.
Originally a name for a person from Marlow in Buckinghamshire, England. The place name means "remnants of a lake" from Old English mere
"lake" and lafe
"remnants, remains". A notable bearer was the English playwright and poet Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593).
Means "marble" in Italian, possibly indicating a person who lived near a quarry or one who worked with marble.
From a place name derived from Old English mearc
"boundary" and denu
From a place name derived from Old English mersc
"marsh" and tun
Derived from Massy
, the name of several towns in France. The name of the town is perhaps derived from a personal name that was Latinized as Maccius
MATA Spanish, Portuguese, Catalan
From Spanish, Portuguese and Catalan mata
meaning "trees, shrubs", possibly from Late Latin matta
meaning "reed mat".
From one of the many places with this name in Japan, derived from Japanese 松 (matsu)
meaning "pine tree, fir tree" and 本 (moto)
meaning "base, root, origin".
From a place name meaning "Mack's stream", from the name Mack
, a short form of the Scandinavian name MAGNUS
, combined with Old English wella
"stream". A famous bearer was James Maxwell (1831-1879), a Scottish physicist who studied gases and electromagnetism.
Referred to one who lived in a meadow, from Old English mædwe
From various Portuguese place names that were derived from Portuguese medeiro
meaning "haystack", ultimately from Latin meta
meaning "cone, pyramid".
Derived from a Hungarian village named Meggyesfalva
meaning "cherry village", from meggy
"cherry" and falu
Originally denoted a person from the German town of Meissen, which is probably of Slavic origin.
From the name of a German town, possibly meaning "mill stream".
From the place name Malleville
meaning "bad town" in Norman French.
MERRILL (2) English
From the name of various places in England, derived from Old English myrige
"pleasant" and hyll
From the name of the Sicilian city of Messina, founded by Greek colonists. The city was named after the Greek city Μεσσηνη (Messene)
Possibly refers to a place or institute of learning or where knowledge is provided.
From the English village of Midgley in West Yorkshire, meaning "midge (insect) wood" in Old English.
Derived from various place names meaning "mill stream" in Old English.
Originally derived from various place names all meaning "ford by a mill" in Old English.
Derived from an English place name meaning "mill town" in Old English. A famous bearer was John Milton (1608-1674), the poet who wrote "Paradise Lost".
From Japanese 宮 (miya)
meaning "temple, shrine, palace" and 本 (moto)
meaning "base, root, origin". A notable bearer is video game pioneer Shigeru Miyamoto (1952-).
MLAKAR Slovene, Croatian
Referred to someone who lived near a pool, derived from South Slavic mlaka
meaning "pool, puddle".
From the town of Modugno, in Apulia in southern Italy. It is the surname of the Italian actor and singer Domenico Modugno (1928-1994).
From a the town of Moffat in Scotland meaning "long field" in Gaelic.
Designated a person who had originally lived near the mouth of the Roe River in Derry, Ireland.
Means "mountain" in Italian, indicating a person who lived on or near one.
From a Norman place name meaning "sharp mountain" in Old French.
MONTGOMERY English, Scottish
From a place name in Calvados, France meaning "GUMARICH
's mountain". A notable bearer was Bernard Montgomery (1887-1976), a British army commander during World War II.
MOON (2) English
Originally indicated a person from the town of Moyon in Normandy.
MOORE (1) English
Originally indicated a person who lived on a moor, from Middle English mor
meaning "open land, bog".
Derived from Spanish moral
meaning "mulberry tree", of Latin origin.
Originally indicated a person from Moravia (Czech Morava
Locative name derived from Italian places such as Morra De Sanctis, Campania, or Morra del Villar, Piedmont.
Name for someone who lived near a peat bog, from Middle High German mos
From Japanese 本 (moto)
meaning "base, root, origin". More commonly it is the final character in Japanese surnames.
From various names of places around Italy. It is derived from a Gaulish word meaning "hill".
From the name of a lost place in Cheshire, derived from the Old English byname Motere
meaning "speaker" and heafod
From the town of Muggia in northeastern Italy near the Slovenian border. It was called Muglae
MURRAY (1) Scottish
Derived from the region in Scotland called Moray
meaning "seaboard settlement". A notable bearer of this surname was General James Murray (1721-1794), who was the first British Governor-General of Canada.
Originally denoted someone who came from the Armenian town of Mushi.
Originally denoted a person from the town of Naggio in Lombardy, Italy.
Derived from the Middle English phrase atten ash
"at the ash tree". A famous bearer was the mathematician John Nash (1928-2015).
From the town of Nepi in central Italy, which is of uncertain origin.
From the name of the town of Nervi in Liguria, northwestern Italy.
From the name of towns such as Nespoli and Nespoledo, derived from Italian nespola
meaning "medlar (tree)".
NESS English, Scottish, Norwegian
From English ness
and Norwegian nes
meaning "headland, promontory", of Old Norse origin, originally referring to a person who lived there.
From the names of various French towns meaning "new town".
NEVILLE English, Irish
From the names of towns in Normandy, variously Neuville
, meaning "new town" in French.
Given to one who came from the town of Newport (which means simply "new port"), which was the name of several English towns.
From the name of one of many English towns meaning "new town". A famous bearer was the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727).
From the name of the town of Nicastro in Calabria, southern Italy.
From the name of the town Nicolosi on Sicily, itself named for Saint Nicholas.
From the name of the Italian town of Nizzola near Modena.
NOGUEIRA Portuguese, Galician
From Portuguese and Galician nogueira
meaning "walnut tree", from the Late Latin nucarius
, ultimately from Latin nux
Referred to a person who was originally from Scandinavia or Normandy. Even before the Norman Conquest, Scandinavians were settling the north and east of England. The Normans who participated in the Conquest were originally from Scandinavia, but had been living in Normandy, France for over a century and spoke French.
NORRIS (1) English, Scottish
Means "from the north" from Old French norreis
. It either denoted someone who originated in the north or someone who lived in the northern part of a settlement.
Originally denoted one who came from a town of this name England, meaning "north farm".
From the name of various towns in England meaning "north town" in Old English.
From the name of Danish villages named Nørup
Originally taken from a place name meaning "north wood" in Old English.
From the name of the town of Nusco in Campania, southern Italy.
Means "meadow, field" in Finnish. It was the surname of the athlete Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973).
Originally indicated a person who lived near a river, from Middle English atten eye
meaning "at the river".
Indicated someone from Nitra, a city and historic principality of Slovakia (formerly in Hungary). Its name is derived from that of a local river, which is of unknown meaning.
From a place name meaning "oak clearing" in Old English. It was borne by American sharpshooter Annie Oakley (1860-1926).
Habitational name for someone who came from Obando in Extremadura, Spain.
From Old High German obar
meaning "above, upper", indicating a person from the uppermost end of a village or the top of a house.
Originally denoted a person who was from Odell in Bedfordshire, derived from Old English wad
"woad" (a plant that produces a blue dye) and hyll
Means "oil hill" from Middle High German öl
"oil" and berg
Originally denoted a person who was from the town of Ochtrup in Germany, which is of uncertain origin.
From the name of the Ojeda river in Soria, Spain, possibly derived from Latin folia
From Basque ola
meaning "hut, small house, forge".
Denoted someone from the islands of Öland (eastern Sweden) or Åland
Means "wild olive" in Spanish, originally indicating one who lived near such a tree.
Means "elm tree" in Spanish, ultimately from Latin ulmus
. The name originally indicated a person who lived near such a tree.
Denoted a person hailing from any one of a number of farms in Norway called either Åmdal or Omdal meaning "elm valley".
Originally indicated a person from Oppenheim, Germany, perhaps meaning "marshy home".
Originally indicated a person from the town of Okondo in Álava, northern Spain, possibly derived from Basque ukondo
Originally indicated a person from one of the two towns named Orellana
in Badajoz, Spain. Their names are probably derived from Latin Aureliana
meaning "of AURELIUS
From a Spanish place name (belonging to various villages) derived from ortiga
From Danish øst
meaning "east", originally denoting a dweller on the eastern side of a place.
Originally a name designating a person from Ursel (now Oberursel) in Hesse, Germany.
Denoted a person who hailed from one of the various places in England called Overton, meaning "upper settlement" or "riverbank settlement" in Old English.
Denoted a person who came from any one of the places in Britain called Ouston or Owston.
Originally indicated a person from Padmore in England, derived from Old English padde
"toad" and mor
Originally denoted one who came from the city of Padua in Italy, from Italian Padova
, itself from Latin Patavium
, of unknown meaning.
Locative name from the town of Palmi in the Calabria region of southern Italy.
PAN (2) Chinese
From Chinese 潘 (pān)
meaning "water in which rice has been rinsed", and also referring to a river that flows into the Han River.
PAREDES Portuguese, Spanish
Denoted a person who lived near a wall, from Portuguese parede
and Spanish pared
meaning "wall", both derived from Latin paries
PARISH (1) English
Originally denoted a person who came from the French city of Paris, which got its name from the ancient Celtic tribe known as the Parisii.
PARK (2) English
From Middle English park
, from Latin parricus
, of Germanic origin. This was a name for someone who worked in or lived in a park.
From the city of Parma in northern Italy, the name of which is probably of Etruscan origin.
From the name of a village near Genoa in northern Italy.
Derived from Hungarian patak
meaning "creek, brook". It was given to people who lived near a creek.
From the name of the city of Pavia in Lombardy, Italy. It is of unknown meaning.
From an English place name meaning "Pœcc's town". Pœcc
is an Old English name of unknown meaning.
Originally indicated a dweller by a pointed hill, from Old English peac
"peak". It could also denote a person from the Peak District in Derbyshire, England.
From Dutch meaning "pear tree", referring to someone who lived or worked at a pear orchard.
From the name of a town near Manchester, derived from Celtic penn
meaning "hill" combined with Old English bere
meaning "barley" and tun
meaning "enclosure, yard, town".
Originally denoted a person who lived near a jutting rock, from Spanish peña
meaning "rock, cliff".
PENN (1) English
Derived from various place names that were named using the Brythonic word penn
meaning "hilltop, head".
Denoted a person who came from Penzig, the German name for Pieńsk, a town in southwest Poland. It is derived from Polish pień
meaning "stump, tree trunk".
PEREIRA Portuguese, Galician
From Portuguese and Galician pereira
meaning "pear tree", ultimately from Latin pirum
From the name of a region in southern France, possibly of Gaulish origin.
PERRY (1) English
From Old English pirige
meaning "pear tree", a derivative of peru
meaning "pear", itself from Latin pirum
. A famous bearer was Matthew Perry (1794-1858), the American naval officer who opened Japan to the West.
From the name of the city of Perugia in Umbria, Italy. It was known as Perusia
in the classical period, and it is of Etruscan origin.
From the name of the city of Pesaro, in the Marche region (Latin Pisaurum
Means "plaza" in Italian, indicating that the residence of the original bearer was near the town square.
From the name of a town in Yorkshire, derived from Old English Piceringas
, the name of a tribe.
Derived from Middle English pighel
meaning "small field".
From the name of the small town of Pierno in southern Italy near Potenza.
Name for a person who lived near a pine tree, from Italian pino
, Latin pinus
Name for a person from a town named Piotrów
, all derived from the given name PIOTR
From the name of the town of Piovene Rocchette in Veneto, Italy.
From Italian pisano
, the name for an inhabitant of the city of Pisa, Italy. The city's name is of unknown meaning.
Indicated a person who lived by a pit or hollow, from Old English pytt
. It could also indicate a person from Pitt (Hants) or Pett (East Sussex) in England.
Derived from French plat
"flat" and mont
"mountain", referring to someone who lived near a flat-topped mountain.
PLANK German, English
Means "plank", from Old French, itself from Late Latin planca
. This could have referred to a person who lived by a plank bridge over a stream, someone who was thin, or a carpenter.
Originally denoted a dweller by a swampy meadow, from Old French plascq
meaning "wet meadow".
From Old French plat
meaning "flat, thin", from Late Latin plattus
, from Greek πλατυς (platys)
meaning "wide, broad, flat". This may have been a nickname or a topographic name for someone who lived near a flat feature.
Possibly from the name of a field where cattle fodder was grown, from German Bletsch
Means "hillock, small hill" in Italian, a derivative of Latin podium
meaning "balcony, platform".
Means "pear tree" in French, originally a nickname for someone who lived close to such a tree.
Means "Pole, person from Poland" in Czech.
From the name of a town in Pomerania, Poland (formerly part of Germany). In Polish it is called Połczyn.
Originally referred to one who lived near a pond.
PONTECORVO Italian, Jewish
From the name of a town in central Italy, home to an old Jewish community. The town's name is derived from Italian ponte
"bridge" and curvo
From Old English pol
meaning "pool", referring to a person who lived by a small body of water.
Designated a person who lived near a harbour, from Italian porto
, Latin portus