Dutch Submitted Surnames

Dutch names are used in the Netherlands and Flanders. See also about Dutch names.
Submitted names are contributed by users of this website. The accuracy of these name definitions cannot be guaranteed.
Abresch German, Dutch, Jewish
From a pet form of the Biblical name Abraham.
Aertsz Dutch, Frisian
A Patronymic surname from Aert, a shortened form of the first name Arnout.
Ahler German, Dutch, Danish
from a Germanic personal name composed of the elements adal ‘noble’ + hari,heri ‘army’.
Ahrens German, Dutch, Jewish
North German and Dutch: Patronymic from the personal name Arend (See Arndt). ... [more]
Aikman Dutch, English, Scottish
Originally a surname or a nickname meaning oak man.
Alderink Dutch
A personal name from an ancient Germanic personal name Aldheri.
Alnemy Flemish
Only know relation claims birth in East Flanders. Arabic speakers believe it may be of Syrian or Saudi Arabian origin.
Alpert English, Jewish, German, Dutch
A variant of the Jewish surname Heilprin or Halpern. In German and Dutch usage, it is derived from the given name Albert... [more]
Amsterdam Dutch, Afrikaans, Russian
Location surname from the Netherlands capital city of Amsterdam meaning "dam of the Amstel".
Appel German, Dutch, Jewish, Low German, Medieval Dutch, Yiddish
1. German: from the personal name Appel, a pet form of Apprecht (common especially in Thuringia and Franconia), itself a variant of Albrecht... [more]
Appelman Dutch
Occupational name from Middle Dutch apelmanger "apple seller".
Aten Frisian, Dutch
The Frisian name Aten means "Noble Wolf". The name was probably given to lesser lords. As noble would mean nobility. As wolf was always a symbol of a warrior, or hunter. Usually Nobles who were also warriors, were lesser lords... [more]
Aukerman Dutch
Americanized form of Dutch Ackerman. This was a frequent name in New Netherland in the 17th century.
Aven Scandinavian, English, German, Dutch, French (Anglicized)
Scandinavian: unexplained.... [more]
Ax Dutch
originally French, used to be de Ax, meaning "from Ax", several possible places called Ax or Aix or variants.
Axel Dutch, Flemish
Habitational name for someone from either of two places, Aksel in East Flanders or Axel in Zeeland.
Baack North Frisian, Dutch
Either from a reduced form of the Germanic personal name Baldeke (a short form of any of the compound names with the first element bald ‘bold’, for example Baldewin) or from Middle Low German baec, bake ‘pork’, ‘bacon’, hence a metonymic occupational name for a butcher or pig farmer.
Bakkum Dutch
The surname of a certain Jim.
Bardwell Dutch
Originates from the word "Bard" meaning beard, and "Well" meaning water sorce.
Barendse Dutch
Means "son of Barend" in Dutch.
Barzelaij Dutch, Jewish
Dutch form (or "dutchization", if you will) of Barzilai via Barzelay. Also compare Barzilaij... [more]
Barzilaij Dutch, Jewish
Dutch form (or "dutchization", if you will) of Barzilai via Barzilay. This name is found exclusively in the Dutch-Jewish community, and is considered quite rare: there were only 112 bearers in 1947 and only 51 bearers in 2007.
Bastiaan Dutch
From the given name Bastiaan.
Baumfree Dutch, American, African American
This name is clearly derived from Sojourner Truth, a former African-American slave who was born as Isabella Bomefree (but at some point the surname was changed to the more German-looking Baumfree). Although Sojourner's original owners - James and Elizabeth Bomefree/Baumfree - were apparently of Dutch descent, it is questionable whether the surname is really of Dutch origin... [more]
Bay English, French, Dutch
Derived from Middle English and Old French bay, bai and Middle Dutch bay, all meaning "reddish brown". It was originally a nickname for someone with a hair color similar to that.
Beer English, German, Dutch, German (Swiss)
Habitational name from any of the forty or so places in southwestern England called Beer(e) or Bear(e). Most of these derive their names from the West Saxon dative case, beara, of Old English bearu ‘grove’, ‘wood’ (the standard Old English dative bearwe being preserved in Barrow)... [more]
Beers Dutch
Name for someone from the village named "Beers".
Beethoven Dutch, Flemish
Combination of beeth 'beetroot' and hoven, the plural of Hof, meaning 'farm'. Beethoven is therefore 'beetroot farms'. There is a village named Betthoven in the province of Liège.
Behr German, Dutch, Belgian
German and Dutch variant of the personal name Bähr (see Baer).
Beijering Dutch
The name Beijering Probably comes from the other but wider spread Dutch surname, Meijering. There is'nt much info I was able to find about both surnames except that there are many diferent forms of the surname like: Beije, Beijerink, Beijeringh, Beijer, Meijer, Meijerink, Meijeringh, etc... [more]
Beilen Dutch
Place name in The Netherlands
Bens Dutch, German
Patronymic from a short form of Bernhard.
Bent Dutch
Probably from the first name Bent 2.
Bentinck Dutch
Patronymic of the given name Bent 2 with the suffix inck meaning "people".
Berend Dutch
From the given name Berend.
Bergen German, Dutch, Flemish, Jewish
Originally denoted a person from any of the various places named Bergen in Germany and the Netherlands. It is also a variant of Berg. Famous bearers include the Americans Candice Bergen (1946-), an actress, and Polly Bergen (1930-2014), an actress, singer and television host.
Bergh Swedish, Dutch
Variant of Berg.
Bergkamp Dutch, German
From the name of various places in the Netherlands and Germany, derived from Old Dutch and Old High German berg meaning "mountain" and kamp meaning "field". This name is borne by Dutch former soccer player Dennis Bergkamp (1969-).
Bergsma Dutch
The surname Bergsma had orinally been German. It was then taken over to Holland possibly in the sixteenth century.... [more]
Bernal French, English, Dutch, Czech
Possibly a French, English, Dutch, and Czech version of Bernal or a variant of Bernard.
Betjeman Dutch
One of the earliest surnames, it derives from the Roman personal name "Benedictus", meaning blessed.
Biesheuvel Dutch
From Biesheuvel, the name of a small village in the north of the province of Noord-Brabant in the Netherlands. It is derived from Dutch bies meaning "bulrush, club rush" (a grasslike plant that grows in wetlands and damp locations) and heuvel meaning "hill"... [more]
Blank Dutch
Dutch and German nickname for a man with white or fair hair or a pale complexion, from Middle Low, Middle High German blanc "bright", "shining", "white", "beautiful", Middle Dutch blank "fair", "white".... [more]
Blankenbiller Dutch
Habitational name from a place called Blankenbijl or similar.
Blasius German, Dutch, Scandinavian
From the Latin personal name Blasius. This was a Roman family name, originating as a byname for someone with some defect, either of speech or gait, from Latin blaesus "stammering" (compare Greek blaisos "bow-legged")... [more]
Blazer Dutch
from Middle Dutch blaser ‘blower’, hence an occupational name for a player of the trumpet or other wind instrument, or a nickname for a braggart or boaster
Bleecker Dutch
Occupational name for a bleacher of textiles, a launderer, or the owner of a public bleaching ground.
Bleeker Dutch
Occupational name for a bleacher of textiles, from Middle Dutch ble(e)kere.
Bleiberg Dutch
Habitational name from a place so named in Luxembourg province, Belgium.
Blemker Dutch
Dutch: occupational name for a bleacher of textiles, Middle Dutch ble(e)kere.
Bloem Dutch
Means "flower" in Dutch.
Bloemendaal Dutch
Dutch cognate of the German surname Blumenthal.
Blonder Dutch
Occupational name for a brewer.
Bloodgood English (American), Dutch (Americanized)
Anglicized form of Dutch Bloetgoet. The progenitor of the American Bloodgood family was Francis Bloodgood, a 17th-century Dutch emigrant to Flushing, Queens, New York, originally named Frans Jansen Bloetgoet.
Bloom Jewish (Americanized), Dutch
Americanized spelling of Bloem and Blum.
Blydenburgh Flemish
Derived from a habitational name from Blijenberg (formerly Bleidenberg) in Brabant, Belgium. (Also Van Blydenbergh)
Boen Dutch
Occupational name for a bean grower, from Middle Dutch bone, boene "bean".
Bogaert Dutch, Flemish
Dutch variant and Flemish form of Bogaard.
Bogart Dutch (Anglicized), Flemish (Anglicized)
Archaic variant or an Americanized form of Dutch Bogaart, itself a variant of Bogaard. It could also be an Americanized form of Dutch/Flemish Bogaert... [more]
Boje Dutch
Variant of Boye.
Bonus French, German, Dutch
Humanistic Latinization of vernacular names meaning ‘good’, for example French Lebon or Dutch de Goede
Boomgarden German, Dutch (?)
Either an occupational name for an orchard worker or a topographic name for someone who lives in or by an orchard.
Boomhouwer German, Dutch
Boomhouwer, means "Cutter of Trees", or "The one who hews trees", having Boom translating into "tree", houw meaning to "hew" or to "cut", and er meaning "the one who".... [more]
Boone Dutch
Variant of Boen.
Boot English, Dutch, German
English: metonymic occupational name for a maker or seller of boots, from Middle English, Old French bote (of unknown origin).... [more]
Boots English, Dutch, German
A variant of Boot meaning "shoemaker" in English or "boatman" in Dutch or German.
Bootz Dutch
A Dutch surname meaning a "nickname for a ridiculous person" or a variant of Boot
Boreman Dutch
Dutch: variant of Borneman. ... [more]
Borman Dutch, Low German, English
Dutch and North German: variant of Bormann. ... [more]
Borne English, French, Dutch
1. English: variant spelling of Bourne. ... [more]
Borneman Dutch
1. Respelling of German Bornemann. ... [more]
Boswachter Dutch
Dutch for "forester."
Botting English, Dutch
Patronymic from BOTT, an Old English personal name of unknown origin.
Bowdler Flemish, English
Originally de Boelare it evolved to Bowdler or Bowdle after Baldwin de Boelare came to England in 1105 & was given a lordship over Montgomery, Wales.
Boye English, German, Dutch, Frisian, Danish
From the Germanic given names Boio or Bogo, which are of uncertain origin... [more]
Braafheid Dutch, Dutch (Surinamese)
Means "braveness" in Dutch, derived from braaf meaning "brave, well-behaved, obedient" and the suffix -heid denoting a condition or state of being. This was originally a nickname for a strong or brave person... [more]
Bras Dutch, Low German
Dutch and North German: from Old French and Middle Dutch bras ‘arm’. This was probably a descriptive nickname for someone with some peculiarity of the arm, but the word was also used as a measure of length, and may also have denoted a surveyor.
Braunershrither German, Dutch, English
This name mean Leather (Tanned) Knight, or a fighter of leather armor, or in Dutch, Leather writer, one who branded print on leather
Brink Low German, Dutch, Swedish, Danish
The Dutch and Low German meaning is "village green". In Danish and Swedish, the name is thought to be a borrowing of Middle Dutch brinc / brink, meaning "grassy edge" or perhaps "slope",, and the Danish word now means "where the water runs deep".
Brinker German, Dutch
From the word brink "edge, slope". This indicated that the bearer of the surname lived near a prominent slope of land
Brook German, Dutch
Topographic name for someone who lived by a water meadow or marsh, from Low German brook, Dutch broek (cf. Bruch).... [more]
Brouwers Dutch
Possibly means "brewer; brewers" relating to one who brews beer.
Brugman Dutch, Swiss
Dutch: topographic name for someone who lived near a bridge or a metonymic occupational name for a bridge keeper, from Dutch brugge ‘bridge’ (see Bridge); in some cases, it is a habitational name for someone from the Flemish city of Bruges (or Brugge), meaning ‘bridges’... [more]
Bruins Dutch
Patronymic from Bruin meaning "brown" in Dutch.
Bruinsma Dutch, West Frisian
Means "son of Bruin", the suffix -(s)ma indicating that it is of Frisian origin.
Buitenhuis Dutch
Means "outside the house", derived from Dutch buiten meaning "outside, out of, in the country" and huis meaning "house".
Burger English, German, Dutch
Status name for a freeman of a borough. From Middle English burg, Middle High German burc and Middle Dutch burch "fortified town". Also a German habitational name for someone from a place called Burg.
Choate English, Dutch
The names of Choate and Chute are believed to have been of common origin and derived from the residence of their first bearers at a place called Chute in Wiltshire, England. Certain historians, however, state that the name of Choate was of Dutch origin and was taken by its first bearers from their residence at a place of that name in the Netherlands.
Clem English, Dutch
From the given name Clem.
Clute Dutch
From kluit, meaning "lamp"
Clutterbuck English, Dutch (Anglicized, ?)
English surname of unknown origin, possibly a corrupted form of a Dutch surname derived from Dutch klateren "to clatter" and beek "brook". The original surname may have been brought to England by Flemish weavers whom Edward III brought to England in the 14th century to teach their techniques to the English, or by Huguenots who fled the Netherlands in the 16th century to escape religious persecution... [more]
Conklin Irish, Dutch
Origin unidentified. Most likely of Dutch origin (the name is found in the 18th century in the Hudson Valley), or possibly a variant of Irish Coughlin.
Constant French, Dutch, English
From the given name Constant or from the word "constant"
Coonrod Dutch
Americanized spelling of Dutch Coenraet or Koenraadt or German Kühnrat (Konrad).
Cornelis Flemish, Dutch
From the given name Cornelis.
Corson Dutch (Americanized, ?)
From the given name of Cors Pieters, a sailor with the Dutch West Indies Company, who arrived in the Dutch Colony, New Amsterdam (present day New York), on or before 1638... [more]
Crabb English, Scottish, German, Dutch, Danish
English and Scottish, from Middle English crabbe, Old English crabba ‘crab’ (the crustacean), a nickname for someone with a peculiar gait. English and Scottish from Middle English crabbe ‘crabapple (tree)’ (probably of Old Norse origin), hence a topographic name for someone who lived by a crabapple tree... [more]
Crane English, Dutch
1. English: nickname, most likely for a tall, thin man with long legs, from Middle English cran ‘crane’ (the bird), Old English cran, cron. The term included the heron until the introduction of a separate word for the latter in the 14th century... [more]
Crauwels Flemish, Dutch, German
Derrives from the Middle Dutch (medieval Dutch) word "crauwel" and Middle High German word "kröuwel" which means "flesh hook", "curved fork" or "trident". The word is no longer used. The first person with this name was most likely a farmer, butcher or a person that runned an inn or a hostel that was named after this tool.
Croese Dutch
Dutch variant of Cruz.
Cronkhite Dutch (Anglicized)
Americanized form of Dutch Krankheid, derived from an abstract noun meaning "weakness", most likely a nickname for a sickly individual.
Cronkite Dutch (Anglicized)
Variant form of Cronkhite. A well-known bearer of this surname was the American broadcast journalist and anchorman Walter Cronkite (1916-2009).
Cruijff Dutch
Referred to a person with curly locks of hair, derived from Middle Dutch cruuf, cruve literally meaning "curl, lock", ultimately from Latin curvus. A famous bearer was the Dutch soccer player Johan Cruijff (1947-2016), as well as his son Jordi Cruijff (1974-), also a noted soccer player; both are better known as Johan Cruyff and Jordi Cruyff respectively.
Cruyff Dutch
Variant of Cruijff. This name was borne by Johan Cruyff (1947-2016) and his son Jordi Cruyff (1974-), both Dutch soccer players.
Cruzan Dutch
Americanized spelling of Cruyssen.
Cuvelier French, Walloon, Flemish
Occupational name for a Cooper derived from an agent in Old French cuve "vat tun". Also found in the Netherlands.
Daane Dutch
From a pet form of the personal name Daniel.
Daimes Dutch
Of Dutch origin, related to surnames Dames and Daïmes. Arrived in the United States in the 17th century, where it is most common.
Dalebout Dutch
From the griven german name Dalbaldus
Daleiden German, Dutch (Rare)
Habitational name from a place in the Rhineland called Daleiden.
Daniël Dutch
From the given name Daniël.
De Bonte Dutch
Bont is a word to describe something with many colours, originally used for spotted cows. So the name means: The one with many colours. Figuratively speaking this would mean: The one who acts crazy.
De Bruyne Dutch, French, Flemish
Derived from Middle Dutch bruun meaning "brown", referring to hair colour or complexion. A famous bearer is Belgian soccer player Kevin De Bruyne (1991-).
De Caters Dutch
Nickname for someone thought to resemble a tom cat, derived from Middle Dutch cater, kater literally meaning "tom cat".
Decatur Dutch
Variant spelling of De Caters. A notable bearer was Stephen Decatur (1779-1820), an American naval officer and commodore during the War of 1812, the Barbary Wars and the Quasi-War.
Defoor Dutch
Given to someone who lived near a castle or citadel
De Geer Dutch, Swedish
The name is possibly derived from the town of Geer near Liège, Belgium. The town lies along the course of the river Jeker, which is called Geer in French.
De Goede Dutch
From a nickname meaning "the good" or "the kind".
De Graaff Dutch
Means "the count", derived from Dutch.
De Groeve Dutch (Modern)
De Groeve is a surname meaning stone.
De Kok Dutch
Literally means "the cook" in Dutch.
Delannoy French, Flemish, Walloon
From the various locations in northern France and Belgium called Lannoy with the element de "from".
Delbert English, Dutch
From the given name Delbert
Deleeuw Dutch
Found in the North Brabant region of the Netherlands
De Leeuw Van Weenen Dutch
Means "Lion of Vienna" in Dutch.
de Maagd Dutch
Derived from Middle Dutch maech, mage "a member of one's kin, a blood relative".
Den Uijl Dutch
Means "the owl" in Dutch, from Middle Dutch ule. A notable bearer was the Dutch prime minister Johannes den Uijl (1919-1987), also known as Joop den Uyl.
Den Uyl Dutch
Variant of Den Uijl, notably borne by the Dutch prime minister Joop den Uyl (1919-1987).
De Pauw Dutch, Flemish
Variant spelling of Pauw.
De Praetere Flemish
Means "The Prattler", from or related to Middle Dutch praten "to chatter" (c. 1400), from a Proto-Germanic imitative root.
Deremer Dutch
From an old personal name Terrimar, which is probably from Old High German dart ‘spear’ + mari ‘famous’
De Roos Dutch
From Dutch roos "rose" (see Roos).
De Rozen Dutch
A Dutch surname meaning "the roses".
Deutschlander Dutch
Name given to a person from Germany.
De Waal Dutch, Walloon
Means "the Walloon" in Dutch, derived from Middle Dutch wale, originally indicating a person who came from Wallonia, a French-speaking region of southern Belgium. It could also possibly be a variant spelling of Van Der Walle and De Walle meaning "the wall"', though evidence for this is lacking... [more]
De Walle Dutch, Flemish
Variant spelling of Van Der Walle.
De Winter Dutch
Nickname for a cold or gloomy man, from Middle Dutch winter 'winter' + the definite article de.
Dewolf Dutch
A nickname for one identified with the animal or from a place noted for a sign showing a picture of a wolf. Signs with easily understood pictographs communicated the names of locations in preliterate Europe.
De Zeeuw Dutch
Nickname for someone from the Dutch provence Zeeland
Diede Dutch
From the given name Diede.
Dirk Dutch, German
From the given name Dirk.
Distel German, Low German, Dutch
Topographic name for someone who lived by a patch of ground overgrown with thistles, or perhaps a nickname for a "prickly" person, from Middle High German, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch distel "thistle".
Doornbos Dutch
Denoted a person who lived near thorn bushes, derived from Dutch doornbos literally meaning "thorn bush".
Dorn German, German (Austrian), Dutch, Flemish, English
Means "thorn" in German.
Dortmundt Dutch
Dutch form of Dortmund.
Dow Scottish, Irish, English, Dutch (Anglicized), German (Anglicized)
Scottish (also found in Ireland): reduced form of McDow. This surname is borne by a sept of the Buchanans.... [more]
Drost Dutch, German, Danish
Occupational name for a steward or head servant.
Duck Dutch
Dutch variant of Duyck. In a German-speaking environment, this is also a variant of van Dyck and Dyck.
Duisterwoud Dutch
Dutch equivalent of Düsterwald.
Dumfries Scottish, Dutch, Dutch (Surinamese)
From the name of a market town in Dumfries and Galloway, Scotland, derived from Gaelic dùn meaning "fort" and preas meaning "thicket". This surname is found predominantly in Aruba, the Netherlands and Suriname... [more]
Duyck Dutch
Dutch nickname from Middle Dutch duuc ‘duck’; in some cases the name may be a derivative of Middle Dutch duken ‘to dive’ and cognate with Ducker... [more]
Dyck Dutch
Topographic name for someone who lived by a dike, Dutch dijk. Compare Dyke.
Dykema Dutch
Derived from DYK, a Dutch form of Dyke.
Elenbaas Dutch
Reinterpretation of Elenbos or Elebaers, from a Germanic personal name composed of the elements alja ‘other’ or agil ‘point or edge (of a sword)’ + berht ‘bright’.
Elias Greek, Catalan, Portuguese, English, Welsh, German, Dutch, Jewish
Derived from the medieval given name Elias. Compare Ellis.
Elisabeth Dutch
From the given name Elisabeth
Elshout Dutch
Means "alder wood" in Dutch.
Engels German, Dutch
A patronymic surname from the given name Engel.
Erasmus French, Dutch
it means beloved one or king
Escher Dutch, German
German habitational name for someone from any of the various places called Esch, Esche, or Eschen.
Ewald German, Dutch (?)
From the given name Ewald.
Fendrich Dutch
The surname Fendrich has its origin in Austria, and mean "flag-bearer".
Flament French, Flemish
French and Flemish cognate of Fleming.
Floris Dutch
"Personal name"... [more]
Franssen Dutch
From the given name Frans and the Dutch woord zoon, meaning son.
Freeling English, Dutch
This is the surname of Christian Freeling (born February 1, 1947 in Enschede, Netherlands)a Dutch game designer and inventor. This surname was also used for the main character "Carol Anne Freeling" in the Poltergeist film of 1982 as well.... [more]
Frenssen Flemish
From the given name Frans and the Dutch woord zoon, meaning son.
Gabriël Dutch
From the given name Gabriël.
Gans German, Dutch
Meaning "goose", perhaps referring to someone who worked with geese, related to Ganser.
Garbrandt Dutch, Low German
Comes from the former Duchy of Brabant.
Geers Dutch
Patronymic from a short form of any of various personal names formed with the Germanic element gar,ger.
Geleynse Dutch
The name Geleynse originated in the Netherlands in the 1400s from a carpenter who went by the name of Jakob Geleijnsen
Gerlach Dutch
From the given name Gerlach.
Gerrits Dutch, Frisian
"Son of Gerrit".
Giesbrecht Dutch
A variant of the given name Giselbert, which in turn is related to Gilbert... [more]
Gillis Dutch
Dutch form of Giles.
Goos German, Flemish, Dutch
Either a metonymic occupational name for a breeder or keeper of geese, from Middle Low German gōs and Middle Dutch goes "goose", or a short form of an Old German personal name containing Gote "Goth" or got "god", particularly Goswin or Gozewijn (a compound name with the second element wini "friend").
Goud Dutch, Dutch (Afrikaans)
Dutch word for "gold". Possibly a nickname for a person with blonde hair
Gouweleeuw Dutch (Rare, Archaic)
Surname from the Netherlands meaning 'Golden Lion'
Graaf Dutch
proper noun: Count
Graanoogst Dutch, Dutch (Surinamese)
Occupational name for a person who harvested grain, derived from Middle Dutch grâen literally meaning "grain, cereal" and ôgest meaning "harvest". A famous bearer is the Surinamese soldier and politician Ivan Graanoogst (19??-), who was an acting president of Suriname in December 1990.
Graef Dutch, German
Name used to denote the chairman of a town council. Compare Graf.
Griffioen Dutch
Dutch cognate of Griffin 2.
Gülden Dutch, German
from gulden "golden" derived from vergulden vergolden "to gild" a metonymic occupational name for a craftsman who gilds objects; compare Guldner. From gulden the name of the coin (English guilder) applied as a topographic or habitational name referring to a house name such as In den silvren Gulden ("In the Silver Guilder") or from related verb meaning "to gild" applied as a topographic or habitational name referring to a house name such as De Gulden Hoeve ("The Gilded Farmhouse") or De Gulden Zwaan ("The Gilded Swan").
Gullit Dutch, Dutch (Surinamese)
Possibly derived from Old Dutch golt meaning "gold", most likely referring to a person who worked with gold. The former Dutch soccer player Ruud Gullit (1962-; birth name Rudi Dil) is a famous bearer of this name.
Hageman Dutch
Combination of Middle Dutch haghe "hedge, enclosure" and #man "man".
Hageman Dutch
Variant of German Hagemann.
Hagen German, Dutch, Danish
from the ancient Germanic personal name Hagen a short form of various compound names formed with hag "enclosure protected place" as the first element.