From the Arabic given name Sabah
which means "morning".
Means "(dweller on) an island" from Finnish saari
"Saturday", a name for one born on that day of the week.
From Old German sachs
, which means "Saxon". The Saxons were a Germanic tribe, their name ultimately deriving from the Old Germanic word sahs
meaning "knife". Famous bearers of this surname include Hans Sachs (1494-1576), a German poet, and Nelly Sachs (1891-1970), a Swedish dramatist and poet, who was awarded in 1966 with the Nobel prize for literature, poetry and plays about the Jewish people.
Denoted someone who lived in Sadowo
or other places beginning with sad-
From Japanese 斎 (sai)
meaning "purification, worship" and 藤 (tou)
meaning "wisteria". The latter character could indicate a connection to the Fujiwara clan.
Originally indicated a person from Salamanca, in western Spain.
SALAZAR Spanish, Portuguese
Means "dweller in the old hall" from the Romance word sala
meaning "hall" and the Basque zahar
meaning "old". It can also refer to Salazar in Burgos, Spain.
Derived from the Latin word salix
meaning "willow tree". The name was originally given to one who lived near a willow tree.
Means "(dweller by or worker at) a saltworks" from Spanish salinas
SALLER (2) German
Means "(dweller by) a sallow tree" from Middle High German salhe
Originally denoted a person from Salzwedel, Germany, which is of Old Saxon origin meaning "salt ford".
Indicated a person from Sandford, England, which means simply "sand ford".
Derived from the name of a town in Spain, ultimately from Latin meaning "new forest".
From the English word, meaning the person lived near or on a beach.
Means "all saint's day" in Italian, a nickname for one born on that day.
SANTOS Portuguese, Spanish
Means "saint" in Portuguese and Spanish, ultimately from Latin sanctus
. This was a nickanme for a pious person.
Means "wise" in Latin or Italian, most likely given to someone who was wise or behaved wisely.
From the city of Sapperton, England, from Old English sapere
meaning "soap maker" and ton
meaning "town, farm, settlement".
SARKA (1) Czech
Means "dweller by a bend in a river" from the Old Czech šárový
Originally indicated someone from Sárköz
, Sárköz being a region of Hungary.
Occupational name meaning "tailor" in Italian, from Latin sartus
From Japanese 佐 (sa)
meaning "help, aid" (repeated, indicated by the iteration mark 々
) and 木 (ki)
meaning "tree, wood".
From Japanese 佐 (sa)
meaning "help, aid" and 藤 (tou)
meaning "wisteria". The final character might indicate a connection to the Fujiwara clan. This is the most common surname in Japan.
Means "clean" in German. Saüßer is the German spelling, Anglicized to Sauber.
From the name of various towns in France, derived from French sauve
"safe" and terre
English nickname meaning "wild, uncouth", derived from a Middle English form of Old French salvage
From Old French savatier
"shoemaker", derived from savate
"shoe", of uncertain ultimate origin.
Occupational name meaning "sawer of wood" in Middle English. Mark Twain used it for the main character in his novel 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer' (1876).
Occupational name for a leaper, acrobat, or dancer, from Old French sailleor
Denoted a person who sold or made clothes made of scarlet, a kind of cloth, ultimately derived from Persian سقرلاط (saghrilat)
Means "shoemaker" from Italian scarpa
Nickname for a poor or miserly person from Italian scarso
From Middle High German schæfære
From a word meaning "shearer" or "cutter". The word was used both for barbers, who cut hair, and tailors, who cut cloth to make garments.
SCHEINBERG German, Jewish
Means "lovely, beautiful mountain" from German schön
"fine, beautiful" and berg
SCHENCK German, Dutch, Jewish
From Middle High German, Middle Dutch schenke
meaning "wine server" (from Old High German scenken
"to pour out"). As a German name it also denoted a tavernkeeper.
SCHERMER Dutch, Low German
Occupational name for a fencer or swordsman, akin to Old High German skirmen
SCHINDLER German, Jewish
Means "shingler, roof tiler". A famous bearer was Oskar Schindler (1908-1974), who saved over a thousand Polish Jews during World War II.
Means "fencer, fencing master" from Old High German skirmen
meaning "to defend".
From Middle High German slinderen
"to dawdle" or Middle Low German slinden
"to swallow, eat".
Occupational name derived from Middle High German smit
"smith, metalworker", a cognate of SMITH
SCHOOL Scottish, English
Derived from either the Old Norse given name Skúli
, the Old Danish Skuli
or the Old Swedish Skule
which probably all mean "to protect".
Means "refined counsel" from Low German schoon
"refined, beautiful" and raad
Originally indicated a person from the town of Schoorl in the province of Noord-Holland in the Netherlands. It means "forest by the shore" in Dutch.
Means "to frighten, jump" from Middle High German schrecken
SCHREIER German, Jewish
German and Yiddish word meaning "screamer, shrieker, crier", perhaps an occupational name for a town crier. There are two main branches of people with the name: Lutherans from Bavaria, and Ashkenazi Jews from the area of the Austro-Hungarian Empire formerly known as Galicia, which is today in southwestern Ukraine.
From Middle High German schrotaere
meaning "a carrier of wine or beer barrels".
From Middle High German schuochwürhte
, or schuchwarte
From the old German words schouch
"shoe" and wurhte
"maker". This was a name given to cobblers.
From the Middle High German occupational name schuochmacher
Means "scholar, student priest" from German Schule
Occupational surname derived from Middle High German schultheiße
meaning "mayor, judge".
From the Middle High German occupational name schuoster
SCHWARZ German, Jewish
From Middle High German swarz
meaning "black". It originally described a person with black hair or a black complexion.
Means "harrower of the dark fields" or "dark harrower of the fields" from German schwarz
meaning "dark, black" and egge
meaning "harrow". A well-known bearer of this name is actor and politician Arnold Schwarzenegger.
Derived from the Middle High German word swenke
which means "to swing". This was probably a hint at the gait of the person. Alternatively, it can be derived from the given name Sweneke
, a Low German form of the name SWANHILD
. One last theory states that it is derived from the town of Schwenke (situated in Nordrhein-Westfalen).
From German words for "swing" and "hammer". This was originally a nickname for a blacksmith.
From Sicilian sciarra
meaning "quarrel, dispute", originally a nickname for a quarrelsome person.
SCOTT English, Scottish
Originally given to a person from Scotland or a person who spoke Scottish Gaelic.
SEGAL (1) Jewish
Acronym of the Hebrew phrase SeGan Levia
meaning "second rank Levite".
From the name of a village which meant "willow farm" in Old English.
Originally indicated a person from Selmone (Sulmona), Italy.
SENFT (2) German
Nickname for a helpful, kind person from Middle High German senfte
meaning "soft, accommodating".
Derived from the name of the Sepulveda valley in the mountains of Segovia, and was originally used to denote people from that region. It is possibly derived from Spanish sepultar
Derived from the Latin given name Seraphinus
which was derived from the Hebrew serafim
which was the name of a class of angels in the Bible whose name originally was derived from saraf
meaning "to burn".
Occupational name for one who made or sold shoes: a shoemaker.
Occupational name for a sexton (Middle English sexteyn
), a person who is a caretaker for a church or graveyard.
SEYMOUR (2) English
From an English place name, derived from Old English sœ
"sea" and mere
Ornamental surname meaning "sapphire" from Yiddish shafir
Ornamental surname meaning "beautiful, handsome" from German schön
SHARMA Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Gujarati, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Nepali
Means "joy, shelter, comfort" in Sanskrit.
Originally given to a person who lived near a sceaga
, Old English meaning "thicket".
SHEINFELD German, Jewish
Means "lovely, beautiful field" from German schön
"fine, beautiful" and feld
From the name of various English towns, meaning "shelf wood".
Denoted a person hailing from any of the various places called Sherborne or Sherburn in England.
From the Irish name Ó Sirideáin
meaning "descendant of Sirideán". The given name Sirideán
SHERMAN (1) English
Literally "shear man", referring to someone who used shears in his line of work, such as a sheep-shearer.
Originally denoted someone who came from the city of Shiraz, located in southern Iran. The city's name is possibly of Elamite origin.
From a nickname for a short person, from Middle English schort
Occupational name referring to an official or public writer, from German schreiben
From the name of various English towns, derived from Old English sid
"wide" and halh
Originally derived from various place names in England meaning "wide island", from Old English sid
"wide" and eg
"island". Another theory holds that it comes from the name of a town in Normandy called "Saint DENIS
", though evidence for this is lacking.
SIEGEL (2) German
Derived from diminutive forms of Germanic names beginning with the element sigi
Patronymic from the given name Sienko
, a diminutive of the archaic name Siemion
, a form of SIMON (1)
. This was the surname of the Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916).
Means "dweller on a hill range, ridge" from the Old Occitan serre
SILVERSTEIN German, Jewish
Means "silver stone" from German Silber
. It was adopted when Jews in Europe were compelled to take surnames in the early part of the 19th century.
From a diminutive of the given name SIMON (1)
. It was first found in the county of Suffolk where the family was established.
SINAGRA (2) Italian
Derived from the given name Xenagoras
which means "strange honour" from Greek xenos
"strange" and geras