From nickname derived from the Piedmontese dialect word borgno
meaning "one-eyed". This was the real surname of American actor Ernest Borgnine (1917-2012).
From the name of the French region of Burgundy (called Bourgogne in French), which is named after the Germanic tribe the Burgundians, itself meaning "people from the high land".
Originally indicated a person from the Spanish town of Borja in Aragon, derived from Arabic بُرْج (burj)
Derived from Hungarian bor
"wine". Originally it could have indicated someone who made or sold wine.
From a nickname derived from Dutch borst
Occupational name for a maker of bottles, from Galician bottela
Occupational name meaning "cooper, barrel maker" in German.
Probably indicated someone from the town of Les Bottereaux in Normandy, itself derived from Old French bot
Derived from an Italian nickname meaning "bull, ox".
Occupational name for an archer, derived from Middle English bowe
, Old English boga
From Old French bois
meaning "wood", originally given to someone who lived by or in a wood.
From the name of the Scottish island of Bute (Bód
in Gaelic), which is of unknown meaning.
From Irish Ó Baoighill
meaning "descendant of Baoigheall". The meaning of the given name Baoigheall
is uncertain, but it is thought to be connected to Irish geall
Derived from the name of the region of Brabant in the Netherlands and Belgium. It possibly means "ploughed region" or "marshy region" in Old High German.
From various locations derived from Old English meaning "broad oak".
Derived from the name of the city of Bradford in West Yorkshire, which meant "broad ford" in Old English. This is also the name of other smaller towns in England.
Anglicized form of the Irish name Ó Brádaigh
meaning "descendant of BRÁDACH
Derived from the given name ABRAHAM
. A famous bearer of this surname was the German composer Johannes Brahms (1833-1897).
Derived from the Italian town of Brembilla in Lombardy, itself named after the Brembo river.
Derived from Old High German brant
"fire". This was a name for a person who lived near an area that had been burned.
From the name of various places in England meaning "hill covered with broom" in Old English.
Means "brass worker", derived from Old English bræs
From a place name, which derived from Old English meaning "enclosure by a steep path".
From an English place name place name meaning "Bracca's town" in Old English.
From a place name derived from Cornish bre
BRECKENRIDGE Scottish, English
Originally indicated someone from Brackenrig in Lanarkshire, derived from northern Middle English braken
meaning "bracken" (via Old Norse brækni
) and rigg
meaning "ridge" (via Old Norse hryggr
From the name of a town near Venice, possibly derived from a Germanic (Lombardic) word meaning "field".
Anglicized form of Irish Ó Braoin
meaning "descendant of Braon", a byname meaning "rain, moisture, drop".
Originally denoted one who came from the town of Breisach, in Germany. The town's name is possibly from a Celtic word meaning "breakwater".
From Old High German breit
"broad" and bart
"beard", originally a nickname for someone with a full beard.
From Irish Ó Braonáin
meaning "descendant of Braonán", a byname meaning "rain, moisture, drop" (with a diminutive suffix).
Originally derived from the name of a hill (or the village nearby) in Somerset, perhaps derived from a Celtic word meaning "hill".
Originally a name given to someone who was a Breton or a person from Brittany.
Indicated a person from the town of Breetz in Brandenburg, Germany. The meaning of the town's name is unknown.
Originally referred to one who came from a town called Brigham, meaning "homestead by the bridge" in Old English. This is the name of towns in Cumberland and Yorkshire.
Possibly from English places named Brindley
, derived from Old English berned
"burned" and leah
Derived from the town of Briosco, near Milan. It may be of Lombardic origin.
Referred to a person who cleared land, from Old French briser
"to cut" and bois
From the name of a city in England meaning "the site of the bridge".
From the name of the city of Bristol, originally Brycgstow
in Old English, meaning "the site of the bridge".
Originally given to a person who was a Briton (a Celt of England) or a Breton (an inhabitant of Brittany).
From the name of the town of Brivio in Lombardy. Supposed it derives from a Celtic word meaning "bridge".
Derived from Old English brocc
meaning "badger", ultimately of Celtic origin.
Means "bread baker" from Middle High German brot
"bread" and becke
Originally derived from a place in Moray, Scotland. It is probably from Gaelic broth
meaning "ditch, mire".
Occupational name derived from Irish bróg
Denoted a person who lived near a brook, a word derived from Old English broc
Originally a nickname for a person who had brown hair or skin. A notable bearer is Charlie Brown from the 'Peanuts' comic strip by Charles Schulz.
From Old English brun
meaning "brown" and hlaw
meaning "mound, small hill". The name was probably given to a family living on a small hill covered with bracken.
Derived from Broz
, a diminutive of AMBROZIJE
. This was the birth surname of the Yugoslavian dictator Josip Broz Tito (1892-1980).
Possibly from the name of the town of Brix in Normandy, which is of unknown meaning. It was brought to Scotland in the 12th century by the Anglo-Norman baron Robert de Brus. It was later borne by his descendant Robert the Bruce, a hero of the 14th century who achieved independence from England and became the king of Scotland.
From Middle High German brun
meaning "brown". It was originally a nickname for a person who had brown hair or skin.
Means "brown" in Italian, a nickname for a person with brown hair or brown clothes.
From the name of a region in Stirlingshire, Scotland, which means "house of the canon" in Gaelic.
From Middle High German buoche
"beech" and holz
BUCKLEY (2) Irish
From Irish Ó Buachalla
meaning "descendant of Buachaill", a nickname meaning "cowherd, servant".
Originally indicated a person from the Hungarian city of BUDA
(one of the two cities that were joined to make Budapest in 1873).
Possibly from Polish buda
meaning "hut, cabin".
Derived from the name of the Bükk Mountains, which means "beech tree" in Hungarian (probably of Slavic origin).
Originally denoted someone who came from a place called Bukowo
, which derive from Polish buk
Originally denoted a person who came from Bulgaria, which is named after the Turkic tribe of the Bulgars, itself possibly from a Turkic root meaning "mixed".
From a nickname for a person who acted like a bull.
Possibly a nickname derived from Middle English bole
Derived from Old French bon cuer
meaning "good heart".
From the name of Bunnag, an 18th-century general of Persian heritage.
Originally indicated a person from the Dutch town of Bunschoten, which might mean "raised, enclosed land".
From the medieval Italian given name Buonarroto
meaning "good increase". This was the surname of the Renaissance painter and sculptor Michelangelo (1475-1564).
From Old French burel
, diminutive of bure
, a type of woolen cloth. It may have originated as a nickname for a person who dressed in the material or as an occupational name for someone who worked with it.
Derived from a diminutive of the old Slavic given name Burian
, of uncertain meaning.
From German Burg
"fortress, castle" and Stelle
"place, position". This was a name given to a person dwelling at or near such a site.
BURKE English, Irish
Derived from Middle English burgh
meaning "fortress, fortification, castle". It was brought to Ireland in the 12th century by the Norman invader William FitzAdelm de Burgo.
From the name of various towns in England, typically derived from Old English burna
"stream, spring" and ham
BURNS (1) English, Scottish
Derived from Old English burna
"stream, spring". A famous bearer was the Scottish poet Robert Burns (1759-1796).
From a common English place name, derived from Old English meaning "fortified town".
Means "bush" in German, a name for someone who lived close to a thicket.
Originally a name for a person who lived near a prominent bush or thicket.
BUSTO Spanish, Italian
From the name of towns in Spain and Italy, derived from Late Latin bustum
meaning "ox pasture".
Occupational name for a butcher, derived from Old French bouchier
BUTLER English, Irish
Occupational name derived from Norman French butiller
"wine steward", ultimately from Late Latin butticula
"bottle". A famous bearer of this surname is the fictional character Rhett Butler, created by Margaret Mitchell for her novel 'Gone with the Wind' (1936).
From a nickname meaning "thick, stumpy", from Middle English butt
Means "hair" in Spanish, used as a nickname for a person with a large amount of hair.
From places named from Late Latin capralis
meaning "place of goats", derived from Latin capra
From various place names derived from Late Latin capraria
meaning "place of goats", from Latin capra
From the name of a city near Naples, originally Caiatia
in Latin, a derivative of the given name CAIUS
Occupational name from Sicilian càjitu
"official, leader", ultimately from Arabic قاضي (qadi)
From the name of the town of Caivano near Naples, derived from Latin Calvianum
, derived from the Roman cognomen CALVUS
Originally given to a person who came from the region of Calabria in southern Italy.
From various English place names derived from Old English ceald
"cold" and well
"spring, stream, well".
Means "crooked nose" from Gaelic cam
"crooked" and sròn
CAMPANA Italian, Spanish
Occupational name from Late Latin campana
meaning "bell", ultimately derived from the Italian region of Campania, where bells were produced.
From a Gaelic nickname cam béul
meaning "wry or crooked mouth". The surname was later represented in Latin documents as de bello campo
meaning "of the fair field".
From the ecclesiastical usage of canon
, referring to a church official or servant who worked in a clergy house.
Originally a name for someone from Cantrell in Devon, from an unknown first element and Old English hyll
From Cantù, an Italian town located in Lombardy, itself of uncertain origin.
CAPELLO (1) Italian
From Late Latin cappa
meaning "cloak, cape, hood". This was a name for one who made or wore cloaks.
CAPELLO (2) Italian
Nickname for a thin person, from Italian capello
meaning "a hair", ultimately derived from Latin capillus
Occupational name meaning "captain" in Italian, ultimately from Latin caput
From a nickname for a person with dark features, from Italian carbone
From the name of a town in Catalonia, of uncertain meaning.
Originally denoted someone from San Pietro di Caridà, a town in Calabria. The town's name may be derived from Greek χαρις (charis)
meaning "grace, kindness".
From the name of a city in northern England. The city was originally called by the Romans Luguvalium
meaning "stronghold of LUGUS
". Later the Brythonic element ker
"fort" was appended to the name of the city.
CARMAN (1) English
Occupational name for a carter, from Middle English carre
"cart" (of Latin origin) and man
CARMAN (2) English
From an Old Norse byname derived from karlmann
meaning "male, man".
Anglicized form of Irish Ó Cearmada
meaning "descendant of Cearmaid", a Gaelic given name.
From an Italian nickname meaning "carnival", perhaps given to a festive person.
From the occupation, derived from Middle English carpentier
(ultimately from Latin carpentarius
meaning "carriage maker").
From the name of a city in Tuscany famous for its marble quarries. It is probably derived from Late Latin quadreria
From the given name CEARBHALL
. A famous bearer was Lewis Carroll (1832-1898), whose real name was Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, the author of 'Alice's Adventures in Wonderland'.
Meaning uncertain, possibly from the town of Courson in Normandy.
Occupational name for a person who operated a cart to transport goods, from Norman French caretier
. A famous bearer is the former American president Jimmy Carter (1924-).
Means "close-cropped hair" in Italian, also having the secondary sense "boy, young man".
Occupational surname for a carver, from Middle English kerve
From the Spanish word casal
meaning "house", ultimately from Late Late casalis
and Latin casa
From the English place name Cawston
, derived from the Old Norse given name KÁLFR
combined with Old English tun
meaning "enclosure, yard, town".
Indicated a person from any of the various towns named Cassano in Italy.
From Irish Ó Caiside
meaning "descendant of Caiside". Caiside
is a given name meaning "curly haired".
Originally indicated a person from Castile, a region (and medieval kingdom) in Spain. The name of the region is derived from Late Latin castellum
From Middle English castel
meaning "castle", from Late Latin castellum
, originally indicating a person who lived near a castle.
Originally indicated a person who came from Catalonia, a region of eastern Spain.
From a place name meaning "cold field", from Old English ceald
"cold" and feld
Occupational name for one who made leggings, derived from Old French chausse
Indicated a person who lived near a causeway, from Old French caucie
Means "horse" in Italian, an occupational name for a horseman.
Means "Czech". The name was used to differentiate a native of Bohemia from the natives of Silesia, Moravia and other regions that are now part of the Czech Republic.
From the Welsh given name Seisyll
, which was derived from the Roman name Sextilius
, a derivative of SEXTUS
From the name of English towns meaning "settlement belonging to CHAD
" in Old English.
Derived from Czech chalupa
meaning "cottage". The name referred to a peasant farmer who owned a very small piece of land.
Occupational name for one who looked after the inner rooms of a mansion, from Norman French chambrelain
From Old French chambre
"chamber, room", an occupational name for a person who worked in the inner rooms of a mansion.
Occupational name for an administrator, a chancellor, from Norman French chancelier
Occupational name meaning "candle seller" or "candle maker" in Middle English, ultimately derived from Old French.
Occupational name derived from Old English ceapmann
meaning "merchant, trader".
From a diminutive of the Old French word chape
meaning "cloak, hood". The name referred to a person who made, sold or often wore cloaks.
Derived from a diminutive form of French charbon
"charcoal", a nickname for a person with black hair or a dark complexion.
Means "leather worker" in Persian, from چرم (charm)
"leather" combined with چی (chi)
, denoting an occupation.
Meant "cart" in Old French, used to denote a carter or a cartwright.
Occupational name for a hunter, from Middle English chase
From Old French castan
"chestnut tree" (Latin castanea
), a name for someone who lived near a particular chestnut tree, or possibly a nickname for someone with chestnut-coloured hair.
CHAVES Portuguese, Spanish
From the name of a Portuguese city, derived from the Roman name FLAVIUS
(being named for the emperor Vespasian, whose family name was Flavius).
Variant of CHAVES
. A famous bearer was the labour leader César Chávez (1927-1993).
Russian form of CHAYKA
. A famous bearer was the Russian composer Pyotr Ilyich Chaykovsky (1840-1893), with the surname commonly Romanized as Tchaikovsky
From Chinese 陈 (chén)
meaning "exhibit, display, old, ancient" and also referring to the former state of Chen, which existed in what is now Henan province from the 11th to 5th centuries BC.