Means "watchman, guard" from Middle High German schützen
From the name of a town in southern Germany, possibly related to German Schwan
SCHWARZ German, Jewish
Means "black" in German, from Old High German swarz
. It originally described a person with black hair or a dark complexion.
From a place name, derived from Old High German swarz
meaning "black" and ecka
meaning "edge, corner". A famous bearer of this name is actor and politician Arnold Schwarzenegger (1947-).
Occupational name for a blacksmith, literally meaning "swing hammer" in German.
Originally denoted someone from Sciacca, Sicily, Italy, which is of uncertain origin.
From Sicilian sciarra
meaning "quarrel, dispute", originally a nickname for a quarrelsome person.
SCOTT English, Scottish
Originally given to a person from Scotland or a person who spoke Scottish Gaelic.
Occupational name meaning "writer, clerk, scribe" in Old French, derived from Latin scriba
Denoted a person from a town by this name in Buckinghamshire, England. It is derived from that of a river combined with Old English broc
From the unattested Old English given name Sæfaru
, derived from the Old English elements sæ
"sea, ocean" and faru
SEGAL (2) French
Occupational name for a grower or seller of rye, from Old French, from Latin secale
From Italian segreto
meaning "secret", a nickname for a confidant.
From the name of a village that meant "willow farm" in Old English.
From the name of various towns named Saint Pierre
in Normandy, all of which commemorate Saint PETER
SENFT (1) German
Occupational name for a mustard seller, from German Senf
SENFT (2) German
Nickname for a helpful, kind person, from Old High German semfti
meaning "soft, accommodating".
Derived from the name of the Sepúlveda Valley in the mountains of Segovia, and was originally used to denote people from that region. It is possibly derived from Spanish sepultar
SERGEANT English, French
Occupational name derived from Old French sergent
meaning "servant", ultimately from Latin servire
From a nickname derived from Italian serpe
Originally indicated a person from from Sessa or Sessa Cilento, Italy (from Latin Suessa
, of uncertain meaning).
From the name of the city of Soissons in northern France, itself derived from the name of the Celtic tribe of the Suessiones.
Occupational name derived from Czech švec
meaning "shoemaker, cobbler".
SEWARD (2) English
Means "swineherd" from Old English su
"sow, female pig" and hierde
Occupational name for a sexton (Middle English sexteyn
), a caretaker for a church or graveyard.
SEYMOUR (2) English
From an English place name, derived from Old English sæ
"sea" and mere
Nickname for a curly-haired person, from Greek σγουρος (sgouros)
Means "beautiful, handsome" in Yiddish, from German schön
From a nickname for a warlike person, from Old English scacan
"to shake" and spere
"spear". A famous bearer was the English dramatist and poet William Shakespeare (1564-1616).
SHARMA Indian, Hindi, Marathi, Bengali, Assamese, Gujarati, Telugu, Kannada, Malayalam, Tamil, Nepali
Means "joy, shelter, comfort" in Sanskrit.
Nickname for a keen person, from Old English scearp
Originally a name for someone from Sharrow, England, derived from Old English scearu
"boundary" and hoh
"point of land, heel".
SHAW (1) English
Originally given to a person who lived near a prominent thicket, from Old English sceaga
meaning "thicket, copse".
SHAW (2) Scottish
From a given name or byname that was derived from Gaelic sithech
Ornamental name derived from German schön
"fine, beautiful" and feld
From the name of various English towns, meaning "shelf town" in Old English.
Occupational name meaning "shepherd, sheep herder", from Old English sceaphyrde
Denoted a person hailing from any of the various places called Sherborne or Sherburn in England, derived from Old English scir
"bright" and burna
"spring, fountain, stream".
From the Irish name Ó Sirideáin
meaning "descendant of Sirideán". The given name Sirideán
SHERMAN (1) English
Means "shear man", referring to someone who used shears in his line of work, such as a sheep-shearer.
Originally denoted someone who came from the city of Shiraz, located in southern Iran. The city's name is possibly of Elamite origin.
From a nickname for a short person, from Middle English schort
From the name of various English towns, derived from Old English sid
"wide" and halh
Originally derived from various place names in England meaning "wide island", from Old English sid
"wide" and eg
"island". Another theory holds that it comes from the name of a town in Normandy called "Saint DENIS
", though evidence for this is lacking.
SIEGEL (1) German
Occupational name for a maker of seals or signet rings, ultimately from Latin sigillum
SIEGEL (2) German
Derived from the diminutive of Germanic given names beginning with the element sigu
Indicated a person from Siena in Italy, which was named after the Gaulish tribe of the Senones.
Patronymic from the given name Sienko
, an old diminutive of SZYMON
. This was the surname of the Polish writer Henryk Sienkiewicz (1846-1916).
Originally indicated a dweller on a hill range or ridge, from Spanish sierra
"mountain range", derived from Latin serra
From a nickname for a person with grey hair, from Old English seolfor
SINAGRA (1) Italian
Originally denoted a person from Sinagra on Sicily, possibly derived from Latin sinus
"inlet" and ager
Occupational name for a fife player or piper, from Hungarian síp
Means "a fine sieve" in Polish, a diminutive of the Polish word sito
SITZ (1) German
Derived from a given name beginning with the Germanic element sigu
SITZ (2) German
Means "house owner", derived from Old High German siz
Means "rock" in Czech, indicating that the original bearer lived near a prominent rock.
SKALICKÝ Czech, Slovak
Indicated the original bearer came from a place named Skalice
in the Czech Republic or Slovakia, derived from the Slavic root skala
From the Old Norse nickname or byname skjótr
Occupational name for a person who skinned animals, from Old Norse skinn
From a place name, derived from Norwegian skjegg
"beard" and stad
From a place name, derived from Danish skov
"wood, forest" and gård
Originally indicated a person from Slane, County Meath, Ireland, which is derived from the given name SLÁINE
Occupational name indicating that an early member worked covering roofs with slate, from Old French esclat
"shard", of Germanic origin.
Originally a name for a person from SILESIA
, a historical region that is nowadays split between Poland, Germany and the Czech Republic.
Occupational name for a locksmith, from Polish ślusarz
, of Germanic origin.
From a nickname for a small person, from Middle English smal
From an unidentified place name probably meaning "smooth clearing" in Old English.
From Middle Dutch smit
"metalworker, blacksmith", a cognate of SMITH
Means "metalworker, blacksmith" from Old English smiþ
, related to smitan
"to smite, to hit". It is the most common surname in most of the English-speaking world. A famous bearer was the Scottish economist Adam Smith (1723-1790).
SMOLAK Polish, Czech
Occupational name for a distiller of pitch, derived from the Slavic word smola
meaning "pitch, resin".
From Old English snel
meaning "fast, quick, nimble".
Habitational name for a person from Sniegow, Sniegowo or other places with a name derived from Polish śnieg
Means "tailor" from Middle English snithen
"to cut", an occupational name for a person who stitched coats and clothing.
SOBOL Russian, Ukrainian, Jewish
Occupational name for a fur trader, from the Slavic word soboli
meaning "sable, marten". As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
SOKOL Czech, Jewish
From Czech sokol
meaning "falcon", a nickname or an occupational name for a falconer. As a Jewish name it is ornamental.
Usually refers to the city of Sokołów Podlaski in Poland. It may sometimes be derived from Polish sokół
SOLBERG Norwegian, Swedish
From a place name, derived from Old Norse sól
"sun" and berg
"mountain". As a Swedish name it may be ornamental.
From Italian soldato
meaning "soldier", ultimately from Latin solidus
, a type of Roman coin.
SOLER Occitan, Catalan
Denoted a person from any of the numerous places in the area whose names derive from Occitan or Catalan soler
meaning "ground, floor".
From the names of Italian places like Somma Lombardo or Somma Vesuviana, derived from Latin summa
SOMMER (1) German, English
Means "summer", from Old High German sumar
or Old English sumor
. This was a nickname for a cheerful person, someone who lived in a sunny spot, or a farmer who had to pay taxes in the summer.
SOMMER (2) German
From Middle High German sumber
meaning "basket, wickerwork, drum".
Originally indicated a person from Somogy, a region within Hungary. It may be derived from Hungarian som
meaning "cornel tree".
SONG Chinese, Korean
From Chinese 宋 (sòng)
referring to the Song dynasty, which ruled China from 960 to 1279.
Means "sun" from Middle High German sunne
. It probably denoted someone of cheerful temperament or a person who lived in a sunny area.
From Italian sordo
meaning "deaf", from Latin surdus
Means "worry, care, anxiety" in German, from Old High German sorga
From place names such as Soriano Calabro and Soriano nel Cimino. It is typical of southern Italy.
From Hungarian sör
meaning "beer". Originally the name was given to beer brewers.
Derived from the town of Sorrento near Naples, called Surrentum
in Latin, of unknown meaning.
Means "grove of trees, small forest" in Spanish, ultimately from Latin saltus
From Czech suk
meaning "tree knot". This could either be a topographic name or a nickname for a stubborn person.
Originally denoted someone from French towns by this name in Aisne or Yonne, both derived from the Latin name Suciacum
Originally indicated someone who lived near the River Sousa in Portugal, possibly derived from Latin salsus
"salty" or saxa
Name for a person who lived near the southern gate of a town or in a town named Southgate, from Old English suþ
From a diminutive of Polish sowa
Occupational name for an armourer or swordsman, from Italian spada
"sword", Latin spatha
From the name of the town of Spalding in Lincolnshire, derived from the Anglo-Saxon tribe of the Spaldingas.
Occupational name for a nailsmith, from Middle High German span nagel
From Sicilian spanu
meaning "sparse, thin hair", ultimately from Greek σπανιος (spanios)
meaning "scarce, rare".
From Sicilian sparaciu
meaning "asparagus", an occupational name for an asparagus seller or grower.
From an Old Norse nickname or byname derived from sparkr
From Old English spere
"spear", an occupational name for a hunter or a maker of spears, or a nickname for a thin person.
Possibly from German spielen
meaning "to play, to jest" combined with meyer
meaning "village headman". Perhaps it referred to someone who was played or acted as the village headman.
Occupational name for a person who dispensed provisions to those who worked at a manor, derived from Middle English spense
Means "grocer" in Italian, derived from Latin speciarius
SPIJKER (1) Dutch
Denoted a dweller by or worker at a granary, from Dutch spijker
Denoted a person who lived near thorn bushes, from Italian spina
"thorn, spine", from Latin.
Means "sharp" in German, indicating the original bearer lived near a pointed hill.
Means "sharp nail" in German, an occupational name for a nailsmith.
Occupational name for a maker of spoons or a maker of shingles, derived from Middle English spone
meaning "chip of wood, spoon".
From Middle English sparewe
"sparrow" and the diminutive suffix -ling
From the medieval Italian given name Stabile
meaning "stable, firm".
Northern Italian name derived from Latin stabulum
From a nickname for a big person, derived from Middle English stack
"haystack", of Old Norse origin.
From the name of the English city of Stafford, Staffordshire, derived from Old English stæð
meaning "wharf, landing place" and ford
meaning "ford, river crossing".
Originally indicated a person from Staindrop, County Durham, England, derived from Old English stæner
meaning "stony ground" and hop
Originally denoted a person from Étampes near Paris. It was called Stampae
in Latin, but the ultimate origin is uncertain.