Means "brine" in Sardinian, perhaps a nickname for someone who pickled foods.
MURRAY (1) Scottish
Derived from the region in Scotland called Moray
meaning "seaboard settlement". A notable bearer of this surname was General James Murray (1721-1794), who was the first British Governor-General of Canada.
Originally denoted someone who came from the Armenian town of Mushi.
Possibly from a nickname meaning "the one who had to", from the past participle of the verb muset
meaning "must" (of Germanic origin).
Referred to a shepherd or else someone who in some way resembled a sheep, derived from Norman French mouton
From nickname derived from Czech myš
NAGEL German, Dutch
Means "nail" in German and Dutch, an occupational name for a carpenter or nailsmith.
Originally denoted a person from the town of Naggio in Lombardy, Italy.
From a nickname meaning "big, great" in Hungarian, referring to one's characteristics. This is the most common Hungarian surname.
Nickname for someone with a prominent nose, from Italian naso
Derived from the Middle English phrase atten ash
"at the ash tree". A famous bearer was the mathematician John Nash (1928-2015).
Means "returned" in Czech, from the verb navrátit
"to return", perhaps used to denote a person who came home following a long absence.
Possibly from Italian neccio
, a type of flat bread.
Nickname derived from Italian negro
"black", used to refer to someone with dark hair or dark skin.
Means "son of NEIL
". This name was borne by the British admiral Horatio Nelson (1758-1805).
From the town of Nepi in central Italy, which is of uncertain origin.
From Italian nero
"black", indicating a person with a dark complexion or dark hair.
Possibly a nickname for an innkeeper, from archaic Milanese nervètt
, a local meal prepared from a calf.
From the name of the town of Nervi in Liguria, northwestern Italy.
From the name of towns such as Nespoli and Nespoledo, derived from Italian nespola
meaning "medlar (tree)".
NESS English, Scottish, Norwegian
From English ness
and Norwegian nes
meaning "headland, promontory", of Old Norse origin, originally referring to a person who lived there.
From the names of various French towns meaning "new town".
NEVILLE English, Irish
From the names of towns in Normandy, variously Neuville
, meaning "new town" in French.
Given to one who came from the town of Newport (which means simply "new port"), which was the name of several English towns.
From the name of one of many English towns meaning "new town". A famous bearer was the English physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1643-1727).
Vietnamese form of RUAN
, from Sino-Vietnamese 阮 (nguyễn)
. This is the most common Vietnamese surname, accounting for over a third of the population.
From the name of the town of Nicastro in Calabria, southern Italy.
From the Italian word nicchio
meaning "shell", possibly a nickname for people related to the sea.
From the name of the town Nicolosi on Sicily, itself named for Saint Nicholas.
From Sardinian nieddu
meaning "black", derived from Latin niger
From Polish Niemiec
meaning "German" and the patronymic suffix -czyk
Means "son of Niso", an Italian form of the mythological name NISUS
Means "son of NICK
". A famous bearer was the American president Richard Nixon (1913-1994).
From the name of the Italian town of Nizzola near Modena.
NOEL French, English
Either from the given name NOËL
, or else derived directly from Old French noel
"Christmas" and given to a person who had a particular connection with the holiday.
NOGUEIRA Portuguese, Galician
From Portuguese and Galician nogueira
meaning "walnut tree", from the Late Latin nucarius
, ultimately from Latin nux
Referred to a person who was originally from Scandinavia or Normandy. Even before the Norman Conquest, Scandinavians were settling the north and east of England. The Normans who participated in the Conquest were originally from Scandinavia, but had been living in Normandy, France for over a century and spoke French.
NORRIS (1) English, Scottish
Means "from the north" from Old French norreis
. It either denoted someone who originated in the north or someone who lived in the northern part of a settlement.
NORRIS (2) English
Means "wet nurse, foster mother" from Old French norrice
, from Latin nutricius
Originally denoted one who came from a town of this name England, meaning "north farm".
From the name of various towns in England meaning "north town" in Old English.
From the name of Danish villages named Nørup
Originally taken from a place name meaning "north wood" in Old English.
From the name of the town of Nusco in Campania, southern Italy.
Occupational name for a clerk, derived from Latin notarius
From place names meaning "new orchard" in Czech.
Means "meadow, field" in Finnish. It was the surname of the athlete Paavo Nurmi (1897-1973).
Originally indicated a person who lived near a river, from Middle English atten eye
meaning "at the river".
Indicated someone from Nitra, a city and historic principality of Slovakia (formerly in Hungary). Its name is derived from that of a local river, which is of unknown meaning.
From a place name meaning "oak clearing" in Old English. It was borne by American sharpshooter Annie Oakley (1860-1926).
OBAMA Eastern African, Luo
From a rare Luo given name meaning "crooked, bent". It was possibly originally given to a baby who had an arm or leg that looked slightly bent immediately after birth or who was born in the breech position.
Habitational name for someone who came from Obando in Extremadura, Spain.
From Old High German obar
meaning "above, upper", indicating a person from the uppermost end of a village or the top of a house.
Ó CNÁIMHÍN Irish
Means "descendant of Cnámh", Cnámh
being a nickname meaning "bone".
Ó COCHLÁIN Irish
Means "descendant of Cochlán", where the given name Cochlán
is derived from Irish cochal
"cape" or "hood". This surname originated in County Cork, Ireland.
Ó COMHRAIDHE Irish
Means "descendant of Comhraidhe", in which the given name Comhraidhe
is of unknown meaning.
Ó CORRA Irish
Means "descendant of Corra" in Irish. The given name Corra
Ó CUILINN Irish
Means "descendant of Cuileann", Cuileann
being a nickname meaning "holly".
Originally denoted a person who was from Odell in Bedfordshire, derived from Old English wad
"woad" (a plant that produces a blue dye) and hyll
Means "oil hill" from Middle High German öl
"oil" and berg
From Dutch offer
meaning "offering, donation", referring to a person who collected money in a church.
Originally denoted a person who was from the town of Ochtrup in Germany, which is of uncertain origin.
From Irish Ó hAnnagáin
, which means "descendant of Annagán". The given name Annagán
was a diminutive of Annadh
From the Irish Ó hEaghra
, which means "descendant of Eaghra", Eaghra
being a given name of uncertain origin. Supposedly, the founder of the clan was Eaghra, a 10th-century lord of Luighne. A famous fictional bearer of this surname is Scarlett O'Hara, a character in Margaret Mitchell's 'Gone With The Wind' (1936).
Ó HEACHTHIGHEARNA Irish
Means "descendant of Eichthighearn", where the personal name Eichthighearn
means "horse lord" in Gaelic.
Ó HÉIDEÁIN Irish
Means "descendant of Éideán" in Irish. The given name Éideán
is a diminutive of éideadh
meaning "clothes, armour".
Ó HÉIDÍN Irish
Means "descendant of Éidín" in Irish. The given name Éidín
is a diminutive of éideadh
meaning "clothes, armour".
From Middle High German oem
meaning "maternal uncle".