From Middle English and Old French roche
meaning "rock", from Late Latin rocca
, a word that may be of Celtic origin. It indicated a person who lived near a prominent rock, or who came from a town by this name (such as Les Roches in Normandy).
Means "oak wood" from Spanish roble
"oak", ultimately from Latin robur
Originally indicated a person who lived near an oak tree or forest, from Spanish roble
"oak", from Latin robur
From a nickname for a strong person, from Italian robusto
"strong", from Latin robustus
"firm, solid, oaken".
Means "rye field" in Dutch. A famous bearer was Jacob Roggeveen (1659-1729), the first European explorer to Easter Island.
Means "red" in Catalan, from Latin rubeus
, originally a nickname for a person with red hair or a red complexion.
Means "red" in Spanish, referring to the colour of the hair or complexion.
From the region of Romagna, on the Adriatic coast of Italy. It is derived from Latin Romania
meaning "land of the Romans".
ROMANO (2) Italian
Denoted a person from the city of ROME
, either a resident or someone who visited as a pilgrim. In Calabria it was also used to designate a person from New Rome, a name for Constantinople.
Means "son of ROMAN
". This was the surname of the last dynasty of Russian tsars.
From the names of places like Ronco or Ronchi, quite common in northern Italy, derived from ronco
meaning "cleared land, terraced land". It was the surname of Angelo Giuseppe Roncalli (1881-1963), the pope John XXIII.
From Italian places named Ronchi, derived from ronco
meaning "cleared land, terraced land". It is most common in northern and central Italy.
Means "rose field" from Dutch roos
"rose" and veld
"field". This was the surname of American presidents Theodore Roosevelt (1858-1919) and Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945).
Means "rosary" in Portuguese. This name was often given to people born on the day of the festival of Our Lady of the Rosary.
From the name of a town in Lancashire, derived from Old Norse rá
"roebuck" and skógr
ROSE (1) English, French, German, Jewish
Means "rose" from Middle English, Old French and Middle High German rose
, all from Latin rosa
. All denote a person of a rosy complexion or a person who lived in an area abundant with roses. As a Jewish surname it is ornamental, from Yiddish רויז (roiz)
ROSS English, Scottish
From various place names (such as the region of Ross in northern Scotland), which are derived from Scottish Gaelic ros
meaning "promontory, headland".
Derived from a nickname for a red-haired person, from Italian rosso
, Latin russus
Diminutive form of ROSSI
. A famous bearer was the Italian composer Gioachino Rossini (1792-1868).
ROTH German, Jewish
From Middle High German rot
meaning "red". It was originally a nickname for a person with red hair.
From Old High German riuten
"to clear land" and bur
ROTHENBERG German, Jewish
From Middle High German rot
meaning "red" and berg
meaning "mountain". As a Jewish name it may be ornamental.
From Middle High German rot
"red" and schilt
"shield", or Yiddish רויט (roit)
and שילד (shild)
. The famous Rothschild family of bankers took their name from a house with a red shield on it.
From the Italian word for a measure of weight, from southern Italian dialects, derived from Greek via Arabic.
Patronymic derived from Middle English rond
meaning "round, plump", ultimately from Latin rotundus
Diminutive of ROUX
. A famous bearer was the philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778) whose ideas influenced the French Revolution.
Derived from Old French ros
meaning "red", from Latin russus
, a nickname for a red-haired person.
From the name of the city of Rovigo in northeastern Italy near Venice. It was called Rodigium
in Latin, and is of unknown meaning.
Originally indicated a person who lived in an overgrown valley, from Old English ruh
"rough, overgrown" and boðm
ROWE (1) English
Means "row" in Middle English, indicating a dweller by a row of hedges or houses.
Originally given to a person who lived near a rowan tree or mountain ash.
Originally derived from the medieval given name Royse
, a variant of ROSE
Originally derived from a place name meaning "rye hill", from Old English ryge
"rye" and dun
From French roue
meaning "wheel", ultimately from Latin rota
, an occupational name for a wheelwright.
Originally derived from a place name meaning "rye hill" from Old English ryge
"rye" and hyll
Originally taken from an Old English place name meaning "Royse's town". The given name Royse
was a medieval variant of ROSE
From Chinese 阮 (ruǎn)
, which refers to a type of musical instrument, similar to a lute.
Nickname for a person with red hair, from Latin rubeus
Indicated a person who lived near the Rudawa, a river in Poland.
Indicated a person who lived near rushes, the grasslike plant that grows in a marsh, from Old English rysc
From a Norman French nickname that meant "little red one", perhaps originally describing a person with red hair.
From the name of places in southern Scotland and northern England, derived from Old English hryðer
meaning "cattle, ox" and ford
meaning "ford, river crossing".
From a dialectal variant of RUGGIERO
. It is typical of northeastern Italy, the area around Trieste.
RYBA Czech, Polish
Means "fish" in Czech and Slovak, an occupational name for a fisher.
Means "fisher" in Czech, from ryba
Occupational name for a mounted warrior, from Old English ridere
Topographic name. It could be a misdivision of the Middle English phrases atter ye
meaning "at the island" or atter eye
meaning "at the river". In some cases it merely indicated a person who lived where rye was grown or worked with rye (from Old English ryge
Meaning unknown, probably ending with Dutch kamp
From a nickname from Italian sabbato
"Saturday", a name for one born on that day of the week.
Occupational name for a maker of sacks, from Italian sacco
, Latin saccus
Originally indicated a person from Saxony (German Sachsen
). The region was named for the Germanic tribe of the Saxons, ultimately derived from the Germanic word sahs
Occupational name for a make of saddles, from Old English sadol
Denoted someone who lived in Sadowo, Sadowice or other places beginning with Polish sad
From Japanese 斎 (sai)
meaning "purification, worship" and 藤 (tou)
meaning "wisteria". The latter character could indicate a connection to the Fujiwara clan.
Originally indicated a person from Salamanca, a city in western Spain that is of unknown meaning.
From Spanish sala
meaning "hall" and Basque zahar
meaning "old". It can also refer to the town of Salazar in Burgos, Spain, which is of the same origin.
Derived from Latin salix
meaning "willow tree". The name was originally given to one who lived near a willow tree.
Occupational name for a salt worker or someone who lived bear a salt works, from Spanish salina
"salt works, salt mine", ultimately from Latin sal
SALLER (1) German
Originally denoted a person from the town of Sallern in Bavaria, possibly from a Celtic element meaning "stream".
SALLER (2) German
Denoted a person who lived by a prominent sallow tree, from Middle High German salhe
Originally denoted a person from Salzwedel, Germany, which is of Old Saxon origin meaning "salt ford".
Indicated a person from Sandford, England, which means simply "sand ford".
Derived from the name of a town in Spain, ultimately from Latin saltus
"forest, glade" and novalis
From Old English, indicated the original nearer lived on sandy ground.
From Italian sanna
meaning "tusk, fang", a nickname for a person with a protruding tooth.
Means "all saint's day" in Italian, a nickname for one born on that day.
SANTOS Portuguese, Spanish
Means "saint" in Portuguese and Spanish, ultimately from Latin sanctus
. This was a nickname for a pious person.
Possibly from the city of Sapperton, England, derived from Old English sapere
meaning "soap maker" and tun
meaning "enclosure, yard, town".
Originally indicated someone from Sárköz
, a region in Hungary, derived from sár
"mud" and köz
Originally denoted a person from Sarno in Italy, named for the Sarno River (called Sarnus
Occupational name meaning "tailor" in Italian, from Latin sartor
, from sarcire
meaning "to mend".
From Japanese 佐 (sa)
meaning "help, aid" (repeated, indicated by the iteration mark 々
) and 木 (ki)
meaning "tree, wood".
From Japanese 佐 (sa)
meaning "help, aid" and 藤 (tou)
meaning "wisteria". The final character might indicate a connection to the Fujiwara clan. This is the most common surname in Japan.
Occupational name for a cobbler, from Latin sutor
From the name of various towns in France, derived from French sauve
"safe" and terre
English nickname meaning "wild, uncouth", derived from Old French salvage
meaning "untamed", ultimately from Latin silvaticus
meaning "wild, from the woods".
From Old French savatier
"shoemaker", derived from savate
"shoe", of uncertain ultimate origin.
From the name of the city of Savona in northern Italy, called Savo
by the Romans, of uncertain meaning.
Occupational name meaning "sawer of wood, woodcutter" in Middle English, ultimately from Old English sagu
meaning "saw". Mark Twain used it for the main character in his novel 'The Adventures of Tom Sawyer' (1876).
Occupational name meaning "acrobat, dancer", derived from Old French sailleor
, from Latin sallitor
Denoted a person who sold or made clothes made of scarlet, a kind of cloth, possibly derived from Persian سقرلاط (saghrilat)
Means "shoemaker" from Italian scarpa
Nickname for a poor or miserly person, from Italian scarso
Ornamental name meaning "beautiful mountain" from old German schön
"beautiful" and berg
SCHENK German, Dutch
From Middle High German, Middle Dutch schenke
meaning "wine server" (from Old High German scenken
"to pour out").
Occupational name for a cutter of cloth or a sheep-shearer, from Old High German skeran
Occupational name for a roof tiler, from Middle High German schindel
"shingle". A famous bearer was Oskar Schindler (1908-1974), who saved over a thousand Polish Jews during World War II.
Means "fencer, fencing master", from Old High German skirmen
meaning "to defend".
From Middle High German slinderen
"to dawdle" or Middle Low German slinden
"to swallow, eat".
Occupational name for a locksmith, derived from Old High German sloz
Occupational name derived from Middle High German smit
"smith, metalworker", a cognate of SMITH
SCHNUR German, Jewish
From Old High German snuor
meaning "rope, cord", an occupational name for a maker of rope.
From Dutch school
, ultimately from Latin schola
meaning "school", indicating a person who worked at or lived near a school.
Originally indicated a person from the town of Schoorl in the province of Noord-Holland in the Netherlands. It means "forest by the shore" in Dutch.
Originally indicated a person from Schötmar, Germany (now part of the city of Bad Salzuflen in North Rhine-Westphalia).
From Middle High German schrecken
meaning "to frighten, to scare".
SCHREIER German, Jewish
Occupational name for a town crier, from Old High German scrian
meaning "to shout, to yell".
Occupational name for a cabinet maker, from Dutch schrijn
"box, container" and maker
Means "beer-porter, wine-porter" in German, an occupational name for a carrier of wine or beer barrels.
From Middle High German schuochwürte
meaning "shoemaker, cobbler".
From the Middle High German occupational name schuochmacher
Means "scholar, student" in German, ultimately from Latin schola
Occupational name derived from Middle High German schultheiße
meaning "mayor, judge".
Means "shoemaker, cobbler", from Middle High German schuoch
"shoe" and suter
, from Latin sutor