Browse Submitted Surnames

This is a list of submitted surnames in which the person who added the name is AngelM0113.
 more filters (1)
Submitted names are contributed by users of this website. The accuracy of these name definitions cannot be guaranteed.
AARONS English
Means "Son of Aaron."
ADDINGTON English
Habitational name from any of various places named in Old English as Eaddingtun 'settlement associated with Eadda' or Æddingtun 'settlement associated with Æddi'.
ANGELSON English
Means son of Angel.
BEEKMAN German, Anglo-Saxon
This name derives from the pre 5th century Olde German and later Anglo-Saxon word "bah" or "baecc". This word describes a stream, or as a name specifically someone who lived or worked by a stream.
BELIĆ Serbian, Croatian
Derived from the word belo meaning "white".
BERGDORF German
Origin unidentified. Possibly a German habitational name from places in Hamburg and Lower Saxony called Bergedorf, Bargdorf in Lower Saxony, or Bergsdorf in Brandenburg.
BERGHORST German
Topographical name for someone who lived by a wilderness area on a mountain, from Berg 'mountain', 'hill' + Horst 'wilderness' (see Horst).
BILLSON English
Means "Son of Bill."
BINGHAM English
Ultimately deriving from the toponym of Melcombe Bingham in Dorset. The name was taken to Ireland in the 16th century, by Richard Bingham, a native of Dorset who was appointed governor of Connaught in 1584... [more]
BITTERMAN English, German
Name given to a person who was bitter.
BLANDFORD English
Habitational name from Blandford Forum and other places called Blandford in Dorset (Blaneford in Domesday Book), probably named in Old English with bl?ge 'gudgeon' (genitive plural blægna) + ford 'ford'.
BLAZKOWICZ Polish
From the video game series, Wolfenstein, Blazkowicz is the main character.
BLOOMINGDALE Jewish (Americanized)
Americanized form of German Blumenthal or its Dutch cognate Bloemendaal.
BÓBSKI Polish
Possibly derived from the Polish word bób, which means "broad bean".
BRESSER English
The surname is derived from the old English word brasian, meaning to make out of brass. This would indicate that the original bearer of the name was a brass founder by trade. The name is also derived from the old English Broesian which means to cast in brass and is the occupational name for a worker in brass.
CERRAJERO Spanish
Occupational name for a locksmith.
CIANCI Italian
The surname Cianci is a name for a person of small financial means. The surname Cianfari is derived from the Italian words cianfrone and cianferone, which referred to a type of medieval coin.
CLATTENBURG English (?)
Most likely something to do with a fortress. Meaning currently unknown.
COBALT English
Name given to a person who mined cobalt.
CORVIN Hungarian (Americanized)
Shortened and Americanized form of Corvinus.
CRANLEY Irish
The surname Cranley was first found in Ulster (Irish: Ulaidh), where they held a family seat but were also to be found in County Offaly and Galway. The sept is styled the Princes of Crich Cualgne and are descended from Cu-Ulladh, a Prince in 576.
DAHLSTRÖM Swedish
Derived from Swedish dal "valley" and ström "stream".
DAKE English
The origins of the name Dake are from the ancient Anglo-Saxon culture of Britain. It is derived from the personal name David. Daw was a common diminutive of David in the Middle Ages. The surname is a compound of daw and kin, and literally means "the kin of David."
DEATHRIDGE English
Name given to someone who lived near a cemetery on a ridge.
DE LA MUERTE Spanish (Rare)
Means "of death" in Spanish. Name given to a person who worked as a graveyard worker.
DEUTSCHLANDER Dutch
Name given to a person from Germany.
DIERINGER German (Americanized)
Americanized form of German Thüringer, regional name for someone from Thuringia, This was also used as a medieval personal name. Americanized form of German Tieringer, habitational name for someone from Tieringen in Württemberg.
DILLON Irish
Dillon is a surname of Irish origin but with Breton-Norman roots. It is first recorded in Ireland with the arrival of Sir Henry de Leon (c.1176 – 1244), of a cadet branch of Viscounty of Léon, Brittany... [more]
DI MAGGIO Italian
Came from a child who was born in the month of May. The surname Maggio is derived from the Italian word Maggio, which literally means the month of May.
DORADO Spanish
From dorado "golden" (from Late Latin deaurare "to gild", from aurum "gold"), probably applied as a nickname to someone with golden hair.
DORMAN English
From the Old English personal name Deormann, composed of Old English deor (see Dear) + mann 'man'. This surname became established in Ireland in the 17th century; sometimes it is found as a variant of Dornan.
DREXEL German, Jewish
It originates from the pre 7th century word 'dreseler' meaning 'to turn', a verb which in medieval times had a wide range of meanings.
DRYDEN English
Possibly from an English place name meaning "dry valley" from the Old English elements drȳġe "dry" and denu "valley". A notable bearer was the English poet, literary critic, translator and playwright John Dryden (1631-1700).
ECKSTRÖM Swedish
Ornamental name composed of the elements ek 'oak' + ström 'river', 'current'.
ENS German
Variant of Enns.
ESCOBAR Spanish
A topographic name from a collective form of escoba, meaning 'broom' (from the late Latin, scopa), or a habitational name from either of two minor places in Santander province called Escobedo.
FASS German
From Middle High German faz, German Fass 'cask', 'keg', hence a metonymic occupational name for a maker or seller of casks and kegs, or a nickname for someone as rotund as a barrel. German: variant of Fasse, Faas.
FASSBENDER German
Occupational name for a maker of keg barrels.
FELKER English
The surname Felker was a patronymic surname, created from a form of the medieval personal name Philip. It was also a habitational name from a place name in Oxfordshire. Forms of the name such as de Filking(es) are found in this region from the 12th and 13th centuries.
FICHTNER German
The Fichtner family name first began to be used in the German state of Bavaria. After the 12th century, hereditary surnames were adopted according to fairly general rules, and names that were derived from locations became particularly common
FILIPPELLI Italian
Means "Son of Filippo." Italian form of Phillips.
FINNIGAN Irish
This interesting surname is of Irish origin, and is an Anglicization of the Gaelic O' Fionnagain, meaning the descendant(s) of Fionnagan, an Old Irish personal name derived from the word "fionn", white, fairheaded.
FIORELLI Italian
The surname Fiorelli was first found in Bolgna (Latin: Bononia), the largest city and the capital of Emilia-Romagna Region. The famous University of Bolgna was founded in the 11th century, by the 13th century the student body was nearly 10,000... [more]
FREIBURG German
Derives from the German words, frei, which means free, and berg, which means hill, and is the name of a city in Germany.
FRINK Anglo-Saxon, Norman
It was a name given to a person who was referred to as being free or generous. The surname was originally derived from the Old French franc, which meant "liberal, generous." ... The surname also has origins from the Norman official title, the frank which also means free.
GANZ German, German (Swiss)
Variant of Gans 'goose'. German: from a short form of the Germanic personal name Ganso, a cognate of modern German ganz 'whole', 'all'.
GFELLER German
Topographical name for someone who lived by a gorge, Middle High German gevelle, or a habitational name for someone from any of various places in Bavaria and Austria named from this word.
GILDNER Jewish
Occupational name for a worker in gold, from Yiddish gildner 'golden'.
GOBER English, French
The surname Gober was first found in Warwickshire where they held a family seat as Lords of the Manor. The Norman influence of English history dominated after the Battle of Hastings in 1066. The language of the courts was French for the next three centuries and the Norman ambience prevailed.
GOLDWATER German (Anglicized), Jewish (Anglicized)
This name is an Anglicized form of the German or Ashkenazic ornamental surname 'Goldwasser', or 'Goldvasser'. The name derives from the German or Yiddish gold', gold, with 'wasser', water, and is one of the very many such compound ornamental names formed with 'gold', such as 'Goldbaum', golden tree, 'Goldbert', golden hill, 'Goldkind', golden child, 'Goldrosen', golden roses, and 'Goldstern', golden star.
GUTKNECHT German, German (Swiss)
Status name for a page of noble birth (Middle High German guot kneht).
HAVERFORD Welsh, English
Haverford's name is derived from the name of the town of Haverfordwest in Wales, UK
HEIDENREICH German
From the medieval personal name Heidenrich, ostensibly composed of the elements heiden 'heathen', 'infidel' (see Heiden 2) + ric 'power', 'rule', but probably in fact a variant by folk etymology of Heidrich.
HEINISCH German
From a pet form of the personal name Heinrich.
HELBER German
Occupational name for a thresher, from Middle High German helwe 'chaff' + the agent suffix -er; alternatively, it could be a habitational name from a place called Helba near Meiningen.
HELLER German
Nickname from the small medieval coin known as the häller or heller because it was first minted (in 1208) at the Swabian town of (Schwäbisch) Hall.
HEUSER German
Deriving from one of several places named Hausen.
HIGHLANDER Scottish
Name given to a person who lived in the high lands of Scotland.
HOLLINGER German, Jewish
Habitational name for someone from places called Holling or Hollingen.
HOLLINGER English, Northern Irish, Scottish
Topographical name from Middle English holin 'holly' + the suffix -er denoting an inhabitant.
HÖRMANN German
The distinguished surname Hormann is of very ancient German origin. It is derived from a Germanic personal name made up of the elements "heri," meaning "army," and "man," meaning "man."
HOSTETLER German
The name itself comes from the word Hostet or Hochstatt meaning "high place". Thus Hostetler is someone living in a high place or on high ground.
HÜBSCH German
Nickname from Middle High German hübesch 'courtly', 'polite', 'refined', 'agreeable', German hübsch.
HUNTLEY English, Scottish
Habitational name from a place in Gloucestershire, so named from Old English hunta 'hunter' (perhaps a byname (see Hunt) + leah 'wood', 'clearing'). Scottish: habitational name from a lost place called Huntlie in Berwickshire (Borders), with the same etymology as in 1.
JÄGERMEISTERSSEN German
Means son of the "Master-Hunter". Originally given to the son of the master-hunter in hunting camps.
JANISSE French
Possibly a respelling of French Janisset, from a pet form of Jan, a variant spelling of Jean, French equivalent of John.
KASTL German
From a pet form of the saint's name Castulus, itself a diminutive of the Latin adjective castus 'chaste'.
KEURIG Dutch
Keurig is "derived from" a Dutch word meaning "excellence." A more accurate translation from the Dutch is "neat" or "tidy."
KIEBLER German
Comes from the Middle High German word "kübel" meaning a "vat," or "barrel." As such it was an occupational name for a cooper, or barrel maker.
KIPPS German
Topographical name for someone living on a hill, from Kippe 'edge', 'brink'.
KIPPS English
From Middle English Kipp, perhaps a byname for a fat man, from an unattested Old English form Cyppe, which according to Reaney is from the Germanic root kupp 'to swell'.
KISSEL German
From a pet form of the Germanic personal name Gisulf.
KLUTZ German
The ancient and distinguished German surname Klutz is derived from the old Germanic term "Klotz," meaning "awkward, clumsy." The name was most likely initially bestowed as a nickname, either on someone who was clumsy or in an ironic way on someone who was exceptionally graceful.
KNAUER German (Silesian)
Nickname for a gnarled person, from Middle High German knur(e) 'knot', 'gnarl'. habitational name for someone from either of two places in Thuringia called Knau.
KNOEDLER German
Occupational name, probably for someone who made dumplings, from an agent derivative of Middle High German knödel.
KOLL German
From the given name Colo or Koloman. Alternatively derived from Middle Low German kolle "head".
KÖLLE German
Variant of Koll.
KONEČNÝ Czech, Slovak
From Czech and Slovak konečný meaning ''final, last, finite''. Perhaps a nickname for the youngest son of a family, a topographic name for someone who lived at the end of a settlement, or a nickname for someone who brought something to a conclusion.
KREUTZ German
Topographical name for someone who lived near a cross set up by the roadside, in a marketplace, or as a field or boundary marker, from Middle High German kriuz(e) 'cross'.
KRONEN German
From German Krone 'crown', probably as an ornamental name. Or a nickname for a slender, long-legged individual, from a dialect form of Kranich.
LAHEY Irish
Lahey and Leahy originate from two different Gaelic surnames. Lahey, Lahy, Lahiff, Lahiffe, Laffey, and Lahive all originate from the Gaelic surname O Laithimh, which itself is a variant of O Flaithimh... [more]
LAUFFER German
The lauffer name is generally thought to have evolved from a place name to a surname. ... Versions of the name that evolve from the word "läufer," which meant "runner," are thought to have originally been an occupational name for a messenger.
LAUPER German (Swiss)
From the short form of a Germanic personal name composed of the elements liut 'people', 'tribe' + berht 'famous'. topographic name for someone who lived at a Lauben, a row of houses and stores with an arcade in front, from Middle High German loube 'arbor', 'bower', 'gallery'.
LEHNER German
Status name for a feudal tenant or vassal, from an agent derivative of Middle High German lehen 'to hold land as a feudal tenant'. variant of Leonhardt.
LERNER German, Jewish
Its literal meaning can be either "student" or "scholar".
LESNAR German
Variant spelling of German Lessner, a habitational name from any of various places in eastern Germany called Lessen, all named with Slavic les 'forest'.
LONG German
Famous bearer is Luz Long a former Olympic competitor.
MARSTELLER German
Occupational name for a stable boy in or for the supervisor of the stables on a noble estate, from Middle High German mar(c) 'noble horse' stall 'stable' + the agent suffix -er.
MARTINES Portuguese
Means "Son of Martin." Portuguese form of Martínez.
MATHIS German, French
From the given name Mathis.
MCCLINTOCK Scottish, Irish, Scottish Gaelic
Deriving from an Anglicization of a Gaelic name variously recorded as M'Ilandick, M'Illandag, M'Illandick, M'Lentick, McGellentak, Macilluntud, McClintoun, Mac Illiuntaig from the 14th century onward... [more]
MCELHENNEY Irish
This interesting surname is of Irish origin, and is an Anglicized form of the Old Gaelic "MacGiolla Chainnigh". The Gaelic prefix "mac" means "son of", plus "giolla", devotee of, and the saint's name "Canice".
MCGIVERN Northern Irish
Anglicized form of Gaelic Mac Uidhrín, a patronymic from a personal name which is from a diminutive of odhar 'dun'. This surname is also found in Galloway in Scotland, where it is of Irish origin.
MCGREW Irish
Originally appeared in Gaelic as Mac Graith or Mag Raith; these are both derived from the personal name Craith.
MCTONY American
Tony McTony!
MEISTER German
Means "Master" in German.
MESSIER French
Occupational name for someone who kept watch over harvested crops, Old French messier 'harvest master' (Late Latin messicarius, agent derivative of messis 'harvest').
MIRAMONTES Spanish
Looker of mountains.
MOLINARO Italian
The surname Molinaro is a name for a person who owned, managed, or worked in a mill deriving its origin from the Italian word "molino," which meant mill.
MONTY French, English
Topographic name for a mountain dweller, from Old French mont 'mountain' (Latin mons, montis).
MOSSMAN English
This interesting name is a variant of the surname Moss which is either topographical for someone who lived by a peat bog, from the Old English pre 7th Century 'mos' or a habitational name from a place named with this word, for example Mosedale in Cumbria or Moseley in West Yorkshire.
NAULT French
From a short form of various medieval personal names derived from Germanic personal names formed with wald 'rule' as the final element, in particular Arnold.
NENNINGER German
Habitational name for someone from Nenningen in Württemberg.
NEUHAUS German, Jewish
Topographical name for someone who lived in a new house, Middle High German niuwe hus, modern German neu Haus, or a habitational name for someone from any of several places named Neuhaus ('new house') in various parts of Germany and Austria, also in Bohemia.
NICKAL German
Variant of Nickel
NICKEL German
From the German word "kupfernickel" meaning Devil's copper or St Nicholas's (OLd Nick's) copper.
NIEDERMEYER German, Dutch
Distinguishing name for a farmer (see Meyer) who had a farm lower (Middle High German nider(e)) than the neighboring one(s).
NOLF German, Dutch
From a short form of the personal name Arnolf, composed of the Germanic elements arn 'eagle' + wulf 'wolf'. Dutch: from a reduced form of Nodolf, derived from the personal name Odolf by transfer of the final -n in a preceding personal name such as Jan, Simoen
ÓDINSSON Icelandic
Means "son of ÓÐINN".
OFFICE English (Modern)
Occupational name for a person who works in an office.
OLANO Basque
Province of Araba, so named from ola 'forge', 'ironworks' + the diminutive suffix -no.
OLIVAS Catalan
Variant spelling of Olives, habitational name from Olives in Girona province, or a topographic name from the plural of Oliva.
ÖSTERREICHER German, German (Austrian)
Means "One from Austria", "the Austrian".
OSTRANDER Dutch
Translated as "from the east border." The name may have been originally borne by one who lived near the eastern border of a town, province, or country.
PALMERO Italian
The Palmero family lived in the territory of Palma, which is in Campania, in the province of Naples. The surname Palma was also a patronymic surname, derived from the personal name Palma, which was common in medieval times... [more]
PARKINGTON English
Habitational name from a place in Greater Manchester (formerly in Cheshire) called Partington, from Old English Peartingtun 'settlement (tun) associated with Pearta', a personal name not independently recorded.
PRUETT English
Derived from the Middle English word "prou," meaning "brave," or "valiant," with the addition of either of two common diminutive suffixes: "-et" or "-ot." As such, this name is thought to have originally been a nickname for someone small, but brave.
RADLER German
Occupational name, which was derived from the kind of work done by the original bearer. It is a name for a wheelmaker or wheelwright. The name stems from the German noun rat, meaning wheel. The origin is more clear in the variant "Rademacher."
REIDHEAD English
The origins of the Reidhead surname are uncertain. In some instances, it was no doubt derived from the Old English word "read," meaning "red," and was a nickname that came to be a surname. Either way, we may conclude that it meant "red-haired" or "ruddy complexioned."
REINHARDT German
Comes from a personal name Raginhard, composed of the elements ragin, meaning counsel, with hard, hardy, brave, strong.
RICARDEZ Spanish
Means "Son of Ricardo". Spanish form of Richardson.
RIESEN German
It is a name for a wood carver.
RIIS Scandinavian
Nickname from ris 'twigs', 'scrub', or a habitational name from any of several places so named in Denmark. Norwegian: habitational name from any of five farmsteads named Ris, from Old Norse hrís 'brushwood'.
ROCKFORD English
An altered spelling of English Rochford; alternatively it may be an Americanized form of French Rochefort or Italian Roccaforte.
ROCKHOLD Anglo-Saxon
Came from when the family lived in the village of Rock found in the various locations that existed in Worcestershire, Devon and also in Northumberland.The surname also has topographic origins in that it describes the area where the original bearers lived.
ROSENBORG Norwegian
Norwegian form of Rosenberg.
RUHR German
Name given to a person who lived near the Ruhr River in Germany.
RUMPLE German
It is derived from Rumbald, an Old German personal name.
SCHERZER German (Austrian)
Habitational name for someone from a place called Scherz in Switzerland
SCHLEP German
Probably a nickname or occupational name for a laborer or carrier, especially in a mine, from Middle Low German slepen, Middle High German slepen 'to drag or carry (a load)' (modern German schleppen, schleifen).
SCHUELER German
The surname Schueler was first found in southern Germany, where the name was closely identified in early mediaeval times with the feudal society which would become prominent throughout European history.
SCHWEIGERT German
Derives from an agent derivative of the German "schweigen", to be silent, and the nickname would have been given to a silent, quiet, taciturn person.
SIEBER German
The roots of the German surname Sieber can be traced to the Old Germanic word "Siebmacher," meaning "sieve maker." The surname is occupational in origin, and was most likely originally borne by someone who held this position
SIMPLETON English
A name for someone who is simple, derived from old English.
STAHLER German
Occupational name for a foundry worker, from an agent derivative of Middle High German stal 'steel'.
STALLMAN German
Variant of Staller. German: topographic name for someone who lived in a muddy place, from the dialect word stal. English: habitational name from Stalmine in Lancashire, named probably with Old English stæll 'creek', 'pool' + Old Norse mynni 'mouth'.
STEINBACH German, Jewish
German habitational name from any of the many places named Steinbach, named with Middle High German stein ‘stone’ + bach ‘stream’, ‘creek’. ... [more]
STINSON English, Scottish
This is one of the many patronymic forms of the male given name Stephen, i.e. son of Stephen. From these forms developed the variant patronymics which include Stim(p)son, Stenson, Steenson, and Stinson.
STORR German
Nickname for a crude man, from Middle High German storr 'tree stump', 'clod'.
STRASBURG German
It is derived from the Old Germanic phrase "an der Strasse," which literally means "on the street." Thus, the original bearer of this name was most likely someone whose residence was located on a street.
STRASSE German
It derives either from the ancient Roman (Latin) word "straet" meaning a main road, and hence somebody who lived by such a place, or from a German pre-medieval word "stratz" meaning vain.
STRASSER German (East Prussian)
Topographical name for someone living by a main street or highway, from Middle High German strasse, German Strasse 'street', 'road'.
STREITER German
Topographic name from Middle High German struot 'swamp', 'bush', 'thicket' + -er, suffix denoting an inhabitant.
SUMTER English
This surname is derived from an official title. 'the sumpter.' Old French sommetier, a packhorseman, one who carried baggage on horseback
TOWNLEY English
Habitational name for a person from Towneley near Burnley in Lancashire, itself from the Old English elements tun "enclosure, settlement" and leah "wood, clearing". In some cases it may have been a topographic name for a person who lived at a clearing associated with a farm or village.
TREVELYAN Welsh, Cornish
Derived from a place-name which originally meant "farmstead ' trev' or Tref (town in Welsh) of Elyan".
TREXLER German
It is derived from the Middle High German "Drehseler," meaning "turner," and was most likely initially borne by a turner or lathe worker.
ÜBERMACHT German
Same given to someone with a lot of power.
UHLER German
Uhler is an Ortsgemeinde – a municipality belonging to a Verbandsgemeinde, a kind of collective municipality – in the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It belongs to the Verbandsgemeinde of Kastellaun, whose seat is in the like-named town.
UTNE Norwegian
In Norwegian, probably has some pre-Germanic elements (i.e. before approx. 200 CE). Other place-names in the area also has an element of pre-Germanic and unknown origins. It has been suggested that it derives from "Út-tún", meaning the hamlet or farmstead that is "out"
VAN DER KLOK Dutch
Toponymic surname, meaning "from/of the kolk".
VAN HEUSEN Dutch
Heusen is derived from the town Husum in Holland. The town was on the Zuyder Zee, Holstein, Holland.
VAN KELT Popular Culture
Used for a character from the 1992 film, School Ties, Rip Van Kelt.
VAN REENAN Dutch
Toponymic surname meaning "from/of Rhenen", a city in the province of Utrecht.
VAN SMOOT Dutch
Americanized spelling of Dutch Smout, a metonymic occupational name for someone who sold fat or lard, Dutch smout, or a nickname for someone who had a taste for, and could afford, rich foods.
VARNER German
Habitational name for someone from Farn near Oberkirch, or Fahrnau near Schopfheim.
VON HAMMERSMARK Popular Culture, German (?)
Means "from Hammersmark" in German. Bridget von Hammersmark is a fictional character in Quentin Tarantino's film 'Inglourious Basterds' from 2009.
WALDER German
Topographical name for someone who lived in or near a forest, derived from the Old English pre 7th Century "w(e)ald", and the Old High German "Wald", forest.
WASSER German, Jewish
Topographic name from Middle High German wazzer "water".
WATERSON English
It is a patronymic of the male given name Water or Walter.
WEAPONSWORTH English
Means maker of weapons
WEIDMANN German
Name meaning, "hunter".
WEINBRENNER German
Occupational name for a distiller of brandy, literally 'wine burner'.
WEISSMULLER German
Translates to "White Miller".
WERDUM German
Werdum is a municipality in the district of Wittmund, in Lower Saxony, Germany.
WESTEN English, Scottish
Habitational name from any of numerous places named Weston, from Old English west 'west' + tun 'enclosure', 'settlement'. English: variant of Whetstone.
WISH English
Topographic name for someone who lived by a water meadow or marsh, Middle English wyshe (Old English wisc). Americanized spelling of Wisch.
WRANGLER English
Given to a person who worked as a wrangler.
WÜRTTEMBERG German
Württemberg is an historical German territory. Together with Baden and Hohenzollern, two other historical territories, it now forms the Federal State of Baden-Württemberg.
YOHE Medieval English
The Yohe surname comes from the Old English word "ea," or "yo," in Somerset and Devon dialects, which meant "river" or "stream." It was likely originally a topographic name for someone who lived near a stream.
ZARAGOZA Spanish, Aragonese
Name given to someone who was from the city Zaragoza in the Aragon region in Spain.
ZINGER German
The surname Zinger was first found in Saxony, where this family name became a prominent contributor to the development of the district from ancient times. ... In Old German the name meant "lively" and "spritely," or more literally, "a biting, sharp taste."